【51Test.NET - 考試(TOEIC)】
一、問題形式列舉題，也叫排除列舉題，ETS稱之為“否定事實資訊題”（negative factual information question）。基本形式如下：According to the passage， which of the following is NOT true of X？
The author‘s description of X mentions all of the following EXCEPT
3）排除與原文相符的選項將各個選項與原文比較以後，排除其中符合原文意思的選項，剩下的一個選項，或者與原文相矛盾，或者在原文未提到，就是正確答案。例如，The opposite of an opportunist is a competitor. These organisms tend to have big bodies， are long-lived， and spend relatively little effort each year on reproduction. An oak tree is a good example of a competitor. A massive oak claims its ground for 200 years or more， outcompeting all other would-be canopy trees by casting a dense shade and drawing up any free water in the soil. The leaves of an oak tree taste foul because they are rich in tannins， a chemical that renders them distasteful or indigestible to many organisms. The tannins are part of the defense mechanism that is essential to longevity. Although oaks produce thousands of acorns， the investment in a crop of acorns is small compared with the energy spent on building leaves， trunk， and roots. Once an oak tree becomes established， it is likely to survive minor cycles of drought and even fire. A population of oaks is likely to be relatively stable through time， and its survival is likely to depend more on its ability to withstand the pressures of competition or predation than on its ability to take advantage of chance events. It should be noted， however， that the pure opportunist or pure competitor is rare in nature， as most species fall between the extremes of a continuum， exhibiting a blend of some opportunistic and some competitive characteristics.
All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 7 as contributing to th
he longevity of an oak tree EXCEPT the capacity to create shade leaves containing tannin the ability to withstand mild droughts and fire the large number of acorns the tree produces本題對應第七段（見上文），其中前三個選項所說的條件（從第四句開始）都對oak tree的長壽有利，而第四個選項所說的“acorns的數量”並未與oak tree的壽命直接聯繫在一起，因此為正確答案。
2.列舉的兩種形式1）集中列舉集中列舉的形式有：三個名詞或辭彙連續出現，各個名詞或辭彙之間以逗號隔開；三個短語連續出現；三個句子連續出現。對於集中列舉，只需根據題幹或選項定位原文，排除在原文的集中列舉之處出現的三個選項，剩下的一個選項為正確答案。例如，They used the pots they made for cooking， storing food， and carrying things from place to place. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a way that ancient people used pottery？
（A） To hold food.（B） To wash clothes.（C） To cook.（D） To transport objects. 2）分散列舉分散列舉的各項可能出現於同一段落之中，或分佈于全文各段。對於分散列舉，需要根據題幹或選項定位原文，將各個選項與所對應的原文一一進行比較，在原文未提到或與原文相矛盾的選項為正確答案。例如，
Perhaps the most striking quality of satiric literature is its freshness， its originality of perspective. Satire rarely offers original ideas. Instead it presents the familiar in a new form. Satirists do not offer the world new philosophies. What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish， harmful or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false. Don Quixote makes chivalry seem absurd， Brave New World ridicules the pretensions of science， A Modest Proposal dramatizes starvation by advocating cannibalism. None of these ideas is original. Chivalry was suspect before Cervantes， humanists objected to the claims of pure science before Aldous Huxley and people were aware of famine before Swift. It was not the originality of the idea that made these satires popular. It was the manner of expression the satiric method that made them interesting and entertaining. Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art， not because they are morally wholesome or ethically instructive. They are stimulating and refreshing because
with commonsense briskness they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. With spontaneous irreverence， satire rearranges perspectives， scrambles familiar objects into incongruous juxtaposition and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstract platitude.
Satire exists because there is need for it. It has lived because readers appreciate a refreshing stimulus， an irreverent reminder that they lived in a world of platitudinous thinking， cheap moralizing， and foolish philosophy. Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth though rarely to any action on behalf of truth. Satire tends to remind people that much of what they see， hear， and read in popular media is sanctimonious， sentimental， and only partially true. Life resembles in only a slight degree the popular image of it. Soldiers rarely hold the ideals that movies attribute to them， nor do ordinary citizens devote their lives to unselfish service of humanity. Intelligent people know these things but tend to forget them when they do not hear them expressed.
The various purposes of satire include all of the following EXCEPT（A） introducing readers to unfamiliar situations（B） brushing away illusions（C） reminding readers of the truth（D） exposing false values.
這道列舉題的選項分佈于文中各處，是一道分散列舉題。其中選項（B）對應第一段倒數第二句…they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions，選項（C）對應第二段第三句：Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth though rarely to any action on behalf of truth，（D）對應第一段第五句：Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false.（A）與原文第一段的意思“satire並無新意，只是表達獨特”相矛盾，符合題意，為正確答案。