托福[編輯]

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托福英文The Test of English as a Foreign Language縮寫TOEFL/ˈtfəl/ TOH-fəl)是由美國教育測驗服務社舉辦的英語能力考試,全稱檢定非英語為母語者的英語能力考試,中文音譯「托福」。

大多數的美國大學或研究所要求外國學生在申請時提出過一定標準的托福考試成績。從1964年創立以來,已有兩千多萬人次參加了托福考試。過去的托福是用紙筆測驗,後來改為電腦測驗,最近已改為網考,學生需付費參加此考試,在各國皆有ETS的分部負責在主要城市舉辦定期考試。除此之外,一些機構如政府、執照、商業組織、或是獎學金項目可能要求這項考試的成績。托福成績的有效期為兩年,在此之後將不再給予通知。[1

歷史[編輯]

1962年,一個由30個政府與民間組織代表組成的全國性大會召開,探討英語為非母語學習留美深造中的英語水平問題。大會建議設立托福考試,並為1963-1964年時間段設立的框架模型。[2]最初的考試是由應用語言學中心設立,並由史丹福大學應用語言學家查理斯·弗格森主持監督。[3]托福的第一次開考是在1964年,由美國現代語言學會執行,福特基金會與丹弗斯基金會出資贊助。[2]1965年,美國大學理事會美國教育考試服務中心聯合擔負托福考試的後續任務。[2]1973年,教育考試服務中心與大學理事會、研究生入學考試理事會達成協議。教育考試服務中心負責在托福理事會的指導下,執行考試計劃。[2]

考試形式[編輯]

托福網路考試(iBT)[編輯]

托福網路考試始於2005年末,全名為「Internet-Based Test」,簡稱「iBT」。TOEFL iBT已逐步地取代了機考(CBT)紙筆試(TOEFL PBT)。網考首先應用於美國加拿大法國德國義大利,並在2006年裡在全世界普及。

歷時長達3.5至5個小時的網考由四個部分組成,每個部分側重一種語言技能,不過一些試題需要多種技能綜合使用。考試著重於在高等教育和學術環境下的語言使用。iBT測驗可在試題上作筆記。

網路考試總分為120分,四個部份各佔30分。[4]

  1. 閱讀
    在讀過每篇文章後(3~4篇[5],可能出現1篇加試題,每篇大約700字左右),有12-14個[5]關於大概內容、作者意圖、從文章得出的推斷等題目。複述、填補圖表、完成總結等是新加入的類型。文章都為學術類型;這些材料可能會出現在大學本科的教材書中。學生被要求回答諸如主旨、細節、推斷、要點、欄位插入、詞彙、修辭目的、總體思想等問題。不具備與文章主題有關的背景知識不會妨礙得出正確的答案。
  2. 聽力
    聽力內容一部分為對話和討論,由6篇3-5分鐘長的段落和問題組成。這些段落包括兩個學生對話和四個學術講課或討論[5]。對話包括兩個人,一位學生、另一位為教授或校園服務人員;問題一般著眼於內容、句義,同時包括段落大意、重點細節、暗示、問題之間的關係、信息的組織、說話人的態度和用意。其另一部分內容為講課,問題則一般著眼於對文章大意的掌握,也包括說話人的態度和用意,不需要學生就講課中專業領域的知識有所了解。每段對話和講課只播放一遍。考生可以邊聽邊記筆記,並在答題時參考。每段對話都有5個問題[5],每個講課有6個。
  3. 口語
    口語是新加入托福的部分。這個部分有有關於個人簡歷和偏好的問題,也有需要綜合閱讀材料和聽力短文的問題。考生需要能夠清楚完整及準確的復述內容、解釋想法和闡釋觀點。口語部分由六道題組成:兩個獨立大題和四個綜合大題。在兩個獨立大題中,考生根據熟悉的話題做出相應的回答,這部分考查語言的及時性,以及考生是否能清晰連貫地表述自己的想法。在兩個綜合大題中,考生需要朗讀一段短文,聽一段學術講座或有關校園生活的對話,並根據文章或對話所給的信息做出相應的回答。在剩下的兩個綜合大題中,考生會聽到類似的材料,並根據所聽到的問題做出相應的回答。綜合考試旨在考察應試人是否能從閱讀和聽力材料中合理地合成答案、傳遞信息。考生可以在閱讀和聽講時記筆記,並使用筆記來輔助他們作答。考生在開始回答時會有一小段準備時間。回答會被記錄下來,並傳到ETS在線計分網路(Online Scoring Network ,OSN)上,由三到六人批改評定。
  4. 寫作
    寫作考試考查應試人的學術寫作能力,共兩題。其中一題要求受試者需針對某種特定議題,為某方立場提出觀點來進行辯護。另一題則是受試者需讀過一篇段落並聽過一段演講,接著以寫作方式回答或討論其相關問題。前者答題時間為30分鐘[5],官方推薦詞數為300以上;後者答題時間為20分鐘[5],推薦詞數為225以上。考卷會被傳到ETS OSN,由四名評卷人計分評定。
考題描述所需時間
閱讀 3–5 段落,每段約14個問題 60–100 分鐘(可能加試2篇)
聽力 6–9 段落,每段6問題 60–90 分鐘(可能加試2篇)
休息   10 分鐘
口試 6 大題 20 分鐘
寫作 2 大題 50 分鐘

考試中的某一環節會出現不計分的加試題,是ETS用來設計新試題的實驗。當考生遇到加長環節時,應該對所有考題給予同等重視,因為加試題是匿名的。例如,當閱讀題由三個變為四個時,只有三個會被積分,其中的一個則不會。四個中的任一一個都可能是加試題。 另:托福聽力加試可能性較大,加試中經典加試占多數。

托福機考(CBT)[編輯]

托福機考Computer-Based Test,簡稱CBT)已於2006年9月30日廢除。題型分為四大部分,測試聽力、結構(文法)、閱讀等的語言能力。除寫作部份之外,其餘測驗過程中,受試者一律不准於測驗紙上作筆記。

  1. 聽力測驗(45–70分鐘)
    學術環境中兩人或兩人以上的對話,可能是學生間或演講中出現的簡短對話。基本上是「誰說了什麼?」的類型。
  2. 句型結構(文法)(15–20分鐘)
    指出句子中錯誤的單字,在空格內填入正確的用字。
  3. 閱讀測驗及單字(70-90分鐘)
    測驗文章內容、作者意圖、從試題所提供的3到4篇文章中得到的推斷。
  4. 寫作(30分鐘)
    請寫出一篇關於某主題的文章,並為正方或反方立場辯護。例:「幹細胞的研究是否必要?請闡述你的立場」。

聽力測驗和句型結構部分是採用電腦適性測驗,題目的難易度會依據前幾道題目答題的正確性來變動。

聽力測驗、結構/寫作(兩項合併)和閱讀測驗的分數以0至30分表示,加總後的平均數為最終分數,以0至300分來表示。寫作部分的成績另以0至6分來表示。

托福筆試(PBT)[編輯]

尚未有網考(iBT)及機考(CBT)測驗的地區則採用筆試Paper-Based Test,簡稱PBT)。儘管PBT和CBT在題數(PBT題數較多)和計分方式上有異,但PBT所測驗的語言能力跟CBT一樣。PBT測驗最終的分數範圍界在310分和677分之間,為聽力(31-68)、結構(31-68)、閱讀(31-67)的加總。與CBT不同的是,寫作部分的分數並不算在PBT的最終分數內,而是以0-6級分來呈現。

  1. 聽力測驗 (30–40分鐘)
    聽力包涵3個部分。第一部分為短對話,有30個問題。第二部分為長對話,有8個問題。最後一部分為講座或談話,有12個問題。
  2. 句型結構(文法) (25分鐘)
    句型結構有15道句型填空,25道改錯。
  3. 閱讀測驗 (55分鐘)
    閱讀部分有50道題組成。
  4. 寫作 (30分鐘)
    寫作部分平均字數為250–300字左後。

美國教育服務社已提供iBT、CBT和PBT分數轉換表

考試成績[編輯]

iBT[編輯]

  • 托福iBT考試成績記為0-120分。
  • 四部分(閱讀、聽力、口試、寫作)的分值為0-30分。每部分成績合併後為總分。
  • 口語每部分的初始分數為0-4分,寫作每道題的初始分數為0-5分。這些分數最後被轉化為0-30分。

筆試[編輯]

  • 筆試的總成績在310-677分值之間,由3個次分值組成:聽力(31–68分),結構(31–68分),閱讀(31–67分)。不同於CBT,寫作部分的分數(名為the Test of Written English, TWE)不被計算在總成績中;它被另外分別出來,為0–6分。
  • 聽力、結構、閱讀部分的成績不是答對問題的比例。由於問題難易程度不同,分數被加權處理。如此,轉化後的加權分數能更準確地反應出正確答案所彙報的學生語言能力。

成績要求[編輯]

絕大多數院校將托福成績作為錄取中的一個指標。每個院校都有托福錄取最低分數線。托福iBT錄取最低分數線從61分(鮑靈格林州立大學)到100分(MIT,哥倫比亞大學,哈佛大學)不等。[6]統計顯示托福錄取最低分數線平均值為本科74.2分,研究生82.6分。

托福 ITP[編輯]

托福ITP是檢測非英語為母語考生的英語筆試,用於測試學術英語能力。 托福 ITP測驗中英文全名為TOEFL Institutional Testing Program,由美國教育測驗服務社(Educational Testing Service簡稱ETS)於1965年研發並實施至今。『托福ITP測驗』是根據未實施電腦化測驗前之紙筆型態托福測驗(TOEFL PBT)演化而來,主要利用先前已施測的龐大托福測驗題庫為基礎,以紙筆測驗型態提供學校或機構成員英文能力檢定之用。『托福ITP測驗』成績能有效反應出受測者之英文能力,其成績效力廣獲國際間認可,目前全世界有47個國家2,500多個學校及機構採用托福ITP測驗,每年實施60萬人次以上的測驗。托福ITP測驗亦於2006年獲得行政院列入公務人員英語檢測陞任計分標準對照表。 考題為新題,或過往的托福PBT試題,可用於學生分班、進度、評估、結課和其它目的。 托福ITP考聽力、文法、閱讀,不考口說寫作。 與托福iBT不同,托福ITP由學院等機構組織開考,不能替代iBT考試。考試有三個等級:B1、B2、C1。 分數計算方式:測驗總分以三部份級數之和 × 10 ÷ 3 = 實際所得總分,總分310-677分。 托福ITP將反饋給歐洲共同語言參考標準(CEFR),考生則會得到一份成績單,成績達460分以上(B1等級)可申請證書,460-542分棕色證書(B1)、543-626分為銀色證書(B2)、627-677分滿分為金色證書。[7]

托福 Junior[編輯]

ETS也提供托福Junior考試,考察中學生的英語水平,是托福系列中的一個特別項目。托福Junior是為11-14歲的學生設計製作的,考試有兩種形式——托福Junior標準考試(筆試)和托福Junior綜合(機考)。托福Junior標準考試由三部分組成:閱讀理解、聽力和語言辨析。托福Junior綜合由四部分組成:閱讀理解、聽力、口試和寫作。托福Junior的考試成績將會彙報給歐洲共同語言參考標準(CEFR),考生將獲得一份成績證書。[8]

托福iBT成績與雅思成績對照[9][編輯]

雅思成績托福成績
9 118-120
8.5 115-117
8 110-114
7.5 102-109
7 94-101
6.5 79-93
6 60-78
5.5 46-59
5 35-45
4.5 32-34
0-4 0-31

批評[編輯]

托福測驗如同許多標準化測驗一樣,成為英語能力的依據。有越來越多的使用英語的大學只採用選擇性測驗或自己研發的測驗來當作學生是否能在學術環境中使用英語的能力。關於托福的缺點至少有以下幾種:

  • 因為英語有一定的變化規則(如動詞及-ing字尾的變化),應試者可不必了解文法的潛在變化,尋找一定規律即可作答。
  • 英語為母語的應試者在測驗成績上並不突出[來源請求],特別在選擇題方面。托福測驗側重在正統的文法規則上,對於英語為母語的人而言並沒有較大的優勢。
  • 在2005年之前,托福並沒有口語能力的測驗。這使得參與測驗的人傾向忽略口語練習,著重在其他考試相關的能力。許多要求托福測驗成績的大學同時也要求新進教師、助理參與另外的測驗,以確保他們與學生溝通的能力。
  • 部分應試者抱怨iBT測驗在口語測驗部分產生較大的噪音,主要因為每個人在同一時間回答六道題目。
  • 部分應試者抱怨考場的座位數不足。
  • 部分應試者認為考試費用較高。

TOEFLtv[編輯]

TOEFLtv是托福官方在YouTube的頻道,於2009年2月25日建立,提供來自教師及學生的學習英語技巧。

Test of English as a Foreign Language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Test of English as a Foreign Language
TOEFL Logo.svg
Acronym TOEFL
Type Internet-based or paper-based standardized test.
Developer / administrator Educational Testing Service
Knowledge/skill(s) tested Reading, listening, speaking and writing of the English language.
Purpose Testing the English languageproficiency of non-native English speakers for academic and other purposes.
Year started 1964
Duration Internet-based test (iBT): 3 hours 10 minutes to 4 hours 20 minutes (excluding 10 minute break in-between).
Paper-based test (PBT): 2 hours 20 minutes to 2 hours 30 minutes.[1]
Score/grade range iBT:
0 to 30 (in 1 point increments) on each of the 4 sections. So total of 0 to 120.
PBT:
Listening: 31 to 68, Structure: 31 to 69, Reading: 31 to 67. Total of 310 to 677. Writing (separate): 0 to 6. (All in 1 point increments.)
Score/grade validity 2 years
Offered iBT: More than 50 times a year.[2]
Restriction(s) on attempts iBT: Can be taken only once in any 12-day period.[3]
Country(ies) / region(s) 4500 test centers in 165 countries.[2]
Language(s) English
Test takers (?)
Prerequisites / eligibility criteria No official prerequisite. Intended for non-native English speakers.
Testing fee iBT: US$ 160 to US$ 250, depending on the country.[2]
PBT: US$ 160.[1]
Scores/grades used by Over 9000 universities, agencies and other institutions in over 130 countries.[4]
Website www.ets.org/toefl

Test of English as a Foreign Language or TOEFL /ˈtfəl/ toh-fəl, is a standardised test of English languageproficiency for non-native English language speakers wishing to enroll in U.S. universities. The test is accepted by many English-speaking academic and professional institutions. TOEFL is one of the two major English-language tests in the world, the other being the IELTS.

TOEFL is a trademark of ETS (Educational Testing Service), a private non-profit organisation, which designs and administers the tests. The scores are valid for two years; then they are no longer reported.[5]

History[edit]

In 1962, a national council made up of representatives of thirty government and private organizations was formed to address the problem of ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at U.S. universities. This council recommended the development and administration of the TOEFL exam for the 1963-1964 time frame.[6]

The test was originally developed at the Center for Applied Linguistics under the direction of Stanford University applied linguistics professor Dr. Charles A. Ferguson.[7]

The TOEFL test was first administered in 1964 by the Modern Language Association financed by grants from the Ford Foundation and Danforth Foundation.[6]

In 1965, The College Board and ETS jointly assumed responsibility for the continuation of the TOEFL testing program.[6]

In 1973, a cooperative arrangement was made between ETS, The College Board, and the Graduate Record Examinationsboard of advisers to oversee and run the program. ETS was to administer the exam with the guidance of the TOEFL board.[6]

To the present day, college admission criteria for international students who are Commonwealth of Nations nationals are exempted from taking the TOEFL exam - nations which are part of the Anglosphere (from Commonwealth realms to former British colonies e.g. Hong Kong SAR or former protectorates of the United States) where English is the de facto official language automatically grants a TOEFL exemption with some restrictions (e.g. residents of Quebec are required to take TOEFL while the rest of Canada is exempt).

Formats and content[edit]

Internet-based test[edit]

Since its introduction in late 2005, the TOEFL Internet-based Test (iBT) format has progressively replaced the computer-based tests (CBT) and paper-based tests (PBT), although paper-based testing is still used in select areas. The TOEFL iBT test has been introduced in phases, with the United StatesCanadaFranceGermany, and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in 2006, with test centers added regularly. The CBT was discontinued in September 2006 and these scores are no longer valid.

Initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months. It is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries.[8] The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring one of the basic language skills (while some tasks require integrating multiple skills), and all tasks focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed during the TOEFL iBT test. The test cannot be taken more than once every 12 days.[9]

  1. Reading
    The Reading section consists of questions on 4–6 passages, each approximately 700 words in length. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.
  2. Listening
    The Listening section consists of questions on six passages, each 3–5 minutes in length. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
  3. Speaking
    The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent and four integrated. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN), and evaluated by three to six raters.
  4. Writing
    The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated and one independent. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it. The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by at least 3 different raters.[10]
TaskDescriptionApproximate time
Reading 3–5 passages, each containing 12–14 questions 60–100 minutes
Listening 6–9 passages, each containing 5–6 questions 60–90 minutes
Break Mandatory break 10 minutes
Speaking 6 tasks 20 minutes
Writing 2 tasks 50 minutes

One of the sections of the test will include extra, uncounted material. Educational Testing Service includes extra material to pilot test questions for future test forms. When test-takers are given a longer section, they should give equal effort to all of the questions because they do not know which question will count and which will be considered extra. For example, if there are four reading passages instead of three, then one of the passages will not be counted. Any of the four could be the uncounted one.

Paper-based Test[edit]

The TOEFL® paper-based Test (PBT) is available in limited areas. Scores are valid for two years after the test date, and test takers can have their scores sent to institutions or agencies during that time.[11]

  1. Listening (30 – 40 minutes)
    The Listening section consists of 3 parts. The first one contains 30 questions about short conversations. The second part has 8 questions about longer conversations. The last part asks 12 questions about lectures or talks.
  2. Structure and Written Expression (25 minutes)
    The Structure and Written Expression section has 15 exercises of completing sentences correctly and 25 exercises of identifying errors.
  3. Reading Comprehension (55 minutes)
    The Reading Comprehension sections has 50 questions about reading passages.
  4. Writing (30 minutes)
    The TOEFL PBT administrations include a writing test called the Test of Written English (TWE). This is one essay question with 250–300 words in average.[12]

Test scores[edit]

TOEFL iBT Test[edit]

  • The TOEFL iBT test is scored on a scale of 0 to 120 points.
  • Each of the four sections (Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing) receives a scaled score from 0 to 30. The scaled scores from the four sections are added together to determine the total score.
  • Each speaking question is initially given a score of 0 to 4, and each writing question is initially given a score of 0 to 5. These scores are converted to scaled scores of 0 to 30.

Paper-based Test[edit]

  • The final PBT score ranges between 310 and 677 and is based on three subscores: Listening (31–68), Structure (31–68), and Reading (31–67). Unlike the CBT, the score of the Writing component (referred to as the Test of Written English, TWE) is not part of the final score; instead, it is reported separately on a scale of 0–6.
  • The score test takers receive on the Listening, Structure and Reading parts of the TOEFL test is not the percentage of correct answers. The score is converted to take into account the fact that some tests are more difficult than others. The converted scores correct these differences. Therefore, the converted score is a more accurate reflection of the ability than the raw score is.

Accepted TOEFL Scores[edit]

Most colleges use TOEFL scores as only one factor in their admission process, with a college or program within a college often setting a minimum TOEFL score required. The minimum TOEFL iBT scores range from 61 (Bowling Green State University) to 100 (MIT, Columbia, Harvard).[citation needed] A sampling of required TOEFL admissions scores shows that a total TOEFL iBT score of 74.2 for undergraduate admissions and 82.6 for graduate admissions may be required.[citation needed]

ETS has released tables to convert between iBT, CBT and PBT scores.[13]

TOEFL ITP Tests[edit]

TOEFL ITP tests are paper-based and use academic content to evaluate the English-language proficiency of non-native English speakers. The tests use new and previously administered TOEFL test questions and are used for placement, progress, evaluation, exit testing and other situations. The test scores, format and content of the test matches the "TOEFL PBT",[14] with the exception of not including the TWE (Test of Written Expression).

Unlike the TOEFL iBT and PBT tests, TOEFL ITP tests are administered by the institution and for internal use. It should not replace the need for the TOEFL iBT test, which is administered securely and includes Speaking and Writing components. There are two levels of TOEFL ITP: Level 1 (intermediate to advanced) and Level 2 (high beginning to intermediate).TOEFL ITP scores are mapped to the CEFR and test takers are provided with a certificate of achievement.[15]

TOEFL Junior Tests[edit]

ETS also offers the TOEFL Junior tests, a general assessment of middle school-level English-language proficiency, and a distinct product within the TOEFL family. The TOEFL Junior is intended for students aged 11–14. The tests are administered in two formats — TOEFL Junior Standard (paper-based) and TOEFL Junior Comprehensive (administered via computer). The TOEFL Junior Standard test has three sections: Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension and Language Form and Meaning. The TOEFL JuniorComprehensive test has four sections: Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension, Speaking and Writing. TOEFL Junior scores are mapped to the CEFR and test takers are provided with a certificate of achievement.[16] TOEFL Junior is a trademark of ETS.

Linking TOEFL iBT Scores to IELTS Scores[17][edit]

IELTS ScoreTOEFL Score
9 118-120
8.5 115-117
8 110-114
7.5 102-109
7 94-101
6.5 79-93
6 60-78
5.5 46-59
5 35-45
4.5 32-34
0-4 0-31

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