American woman infected with Ebola arrives in U.S.

美國婦女感染了埃博拉病毒在到達美國

By Jason Hanna and Holly Yan, CNN
August 5, 2014 -- Updated 2019 GMT (0419 HKT)
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STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • NEW: Nancy Writebol is very weak but has shown signs of improvement
  • The missionary, who was working in Liberia, has arrived back in the United States
  • She is only the second known Ebola patient to be treated in the United States
  • A man in Saudi Arabia who was in Sierra Leone has symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fever
 

Atlanta (CNN) -- Nancy Writebol's family says it was making funeral plans for her last week as she lay stricken with Ebola in Liberia amid the disease's deadliest recorded outbreak.

After an experimental serum and a plane flight, she's now the second human Ebola patient on U.S. soil, and her relatives think she has a fighting chance.

A medical plane on Tuesday flew Writebol from Liberia to Atlanta, where she was rushed to the same hospital where an American missionary colleague arrived days earlier. Like her, he was sickened by the deadly hemorrhagic disease while on a team caring for Ebola patients in Monrovia.

Writebol was wheeled into Emory University Hospital early Tuesday afternoon on a gurney, wearing a white, full-body protective suit and escorted by two people wearing similar gear.

 
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There, she joins her fellow missionary Dr. Kent Brantly, who became the first Ebola patient ever in the United States on Saturday, for treatment in a special isolation unit. It is one of four of its kind in the United States designed to optimize care for those with highly infectious diseases.

 
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"Nancy is still very weak" but has shown signs of improvement, said Bruce Johnson, president of Christian mission group SIM USA, with which Writebol is affiliated.

Writebol's arrival contrasted with that of Brantly, who wore a similar suit but walked into the hospital Saturday with someone's assistance.

Writebol, of North Carolina, and Brantly, of Texas and Indiana, were on a joint Samaritan's Purse-SIM team caring for Ebola patients last month when they became sick in Liberia. That is one of four West African nations hit by an outbreak that the World Health Organizationbelieves has sickened 1,603 people and killed 887 of them.

Writebol's two sons expect to communicate with her soon, Johnson said. The family was considering funeral arrangements for her just last week, days after she became sick, David Writebol said through Johnson.

"Yet we kept our faith, (and) now we have real reason to be hopeful," David Writebol said in a statement read by Johnson.

Though there is no proven treatment or vaccine for Ebola, Brantlyand Writebol were recently given an experimental, U.S.-manufactured drug in Liberia while they were awaiting evacuation to the United States. Both have since shown significant improvement, sources said on condition of anonymity.

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The gruesome disease that can torment victims with profuse vomiting, uncontrollable bleeding and organ failure is ravaging West Africa. The outbreak started this year in Guinea but also has affected Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria.

The flight and the experimental serum

Though Writebol was weak, she had yogurt before her flight early Saturday from Liberia to the United States, Johnson said. She was taken to the plane by stretcher, but she stood up and entered the plane with assistance, he said.

The experimental drug ZMapp, which Brantly and Writebol received despite the medication never being subjected to clinical trials, is getting a lot of attention.

Just last Thursday, Brantly's condition in Liberia had deteriorated so badly that he called his wife to say goodbye.

But three vials of ZMapp stored at subzero temperatures were flown into Liberia. Brantly and Writebol took the drug, and their conditions improved before they evacuated to the United States.

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Photos: Ebola outbreak in West AfricaPhotos: Ebola outbreak in West Africa
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The medicine is thought to work by preventing the virus from entering and infecting new cells. It's a three-mouse monoclonal antibody -- meaning mice were exposed to fragments of the Ebola virus, and the antibodies generated within the mice's blood were harvested to create the medicine.

While Brantly and Writebol's conditions improved after taking the drug, the serum shouldn't be viewed as a miracle cure, internist and gastroenterologist Dr. Jorge Rodriguez said.

"Let's be cautious. We don't even know really if this serum is working," Rodriguez said. "I'm glad now that these patients were brought to a hospital where so many tests can be done, where they can see the response of their body to this serum. We don't know if these patients are naturally getting better, or whether the serum is really doing something."

Many have asked why the two Americans received the experimental drug when so many in West Africa also have the virus.

The World Health Organization says it was not involved in the decision to treat Brantly and Writebol. Both patients had to give consent to receive the drug knowing it had never been tested in humans before.

The process by which the medication was made available to the American patients may have fallen under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "compassionate use" regulation, which allows access to investigational drugs outside clinical trials.

American Ebola patient 'seems to be improving,' CDC chief says

How Ebola spreads

Ebola doesn't spread through the air or water. The disease spreads through contact with infected organs and bodily fluids such as blood, saliva and urine.

Historically, the odds have not been good. Previous Ebola outbreaks have had a fatality rate of 90%, but the current outbreak in West Africa has a rate of about 60%, perhaps because of early treatment.

There is no FDA-approved treatment for Ebola. Emory will use "supportive care" for its two Ebola patients, unit supervisor Dr. Bruce Ribner said.

That means carefully tracking a patient's symptoms, vital signs and organ function and using blood transfusions and dialysis to keep patients stable.

The National Institutes of Health plans to begin testing an experimental Ebola vaccine in people as early as September. Tests on primates have been successful.

In the 1990s, an Ebola strain tied to monkeys -- Ebola-Reston -- was found in the United States, but no humans got sick from it, according to the CDC.

What is the risk of catching Ebola on a plane?

Concerns, testing spread outside Africa

A man hospitalized in New York City was in strict isolation Monday and Tuesday, waiting to learn whether he has the disease.

The patient became ill after recently traveling to West Africa, New York's Mount Sinai Hospital said.

Doctors were trying to confirm the cause of the man's high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. A specimen from the patient was delivered to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta; testing typically is completed within 48 hours, the hospital said Tuesday.

But "odds are this is not Ebola," said Dr. Jeremy Boal, chief medical officer of the Mount Sinai Health System. "It's much more likely that it's a much more common condition."

The patient was stable Monday night into Tuesday and was in "good spirits," the hospital said in a news release Tuesday.

CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta agrees. About half a dozen people have recently returned from West Africa and gotten tested because of symptoms, but none of those cases has been confirmed as Ebola, Gupta said.

Doctors in Saudi Arabia are also taking precautions as they treat a 40-year-old man who recently returned from Sierra Leone.

The man was in critical condition Tuesday with symptoms of a viral hemorrhagic fever, the Saudi Health Ministry said.

The source of his infection remains unknown, but Ebola cannot be ruled out, the ministry said.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


由賈森·漢納和閆冬青,美國有線電視新聞網
2014年8月5日 - 更新2019 GMT(0419 HKT)

您的視頻將開始瞬間。


新聞提要
新:南希Writebol非常薄弱,但已經顯示出改善的跡象
傳教士,誰是在利比里亞工作,已經回到了美國
她是第二只稱為埃博拉患者在美國被處理
一名男子在沙特阿拉伯誰在塞拉利昂的病毒性出血熱的症狀
亞特蘭大(CNN) -南希Writebol的家人說,這是使她在上週的葬禮計劃,她則患了埃博拉病毒在利比里亞際疾病的致命爆發記錄。
實驗血清和飛機的飛行之後,她現在是第二次人類埃博拉患者在美國本土,而她的親屬認為她有一個戰鬥的機會。
在週二的醫療飛機飛Writebol從利比里亞到亞特蘭大,在那裡她被送往同一醫院,一個美國傳教士的同事趕到天前。像她這樣的,他生病了致命的出血性疾病,而在一個團隊照顧埃博拉病毒的病人在蒙羅維亞。
Writebol被推進了埃默里大學醫院早期週二下午在輪床上,穿著白色,全身防護服,並用兩個人穿著類似齒輪護送。
如何防止機場埃博拉傳播?
在那裡,她加入她的同胞傳教布蘭特利肯特博士,誰成為第一個埃博拉患者曾經在美國上週六,用於治療一種特殊的隔離單元。這是四個同類型的美國設計,優化照顧那些有高度傳染性的疾病之一。
醫院:奇怪的是它不是埃博拉病毒 紐約的患者被測試的埃博拉病毒 埃博拉運輸隊說CNN報導
“南希仍然非常弱”,但已經顯示出改善的跡象,說布魯斯·約翰遜的基督教宣教組的SIM美國,與Writebol隸屬於總統。
Writebol的到來對比布蘭特利說,誰穿了一件類似的衣服,但走進醫院週六與別人的援助。
上個月Writebol,北卡羅來納和得克薩斯州布蘭特利,以及印地安那州,是一個共同善普施-SIM卡的團隊照顧埃博拉病毒的病人,當他們生病利比里亞。這是該爆發打四個西非國家之一,世界衛生組織認為已經生病1,603人,並殺害了其中的887。
Writebol的兩個兒子希望很快與她溝通,約翰遜說。這個家庭正在考慮為她的後事就在上週,經過幾天她生病,大衛Writebol通過約翰遜說。
“然而,我們使我們的信心,(和)現在我們有真正的原因是有希望的,”大衛Writebol由約翰遜宣讀了一份聲明說。
雖然目前並沒有有效的治療或疫苗的埃博拉病毒,布蘭特利和Writebol最近給出的實驗,美國製造毒品在利比里亞,而他們正在等待疏散到美國。兩人都因為顯示顯著改善,消息人士不願透露姓名。
什麼退避面的內部的樣子
可怕的疾病,它可折磨了豐富的嘔吐,難以控制的出血及臟器功能衰竭受害者肆虐西非。爆發今年開始在幾內亞,而且已經影響到利比里亞,塞拉利昂和尼日利亞。
飛行和實驗血清
雖然Writebol弱,她在她的飛行星期六早上從利比里亞到美國有酸奶,約翰遜說。她被帶到飛機上用擔架,但是她站了起來,進入了飛機的協助,他說。
實驗性藥物ZMapp,布蘭特利這和Writebol接受,儘管從來沒有受到臨床試驗的藥物,是得到了很多的關注。
就在上週四,布蘭特利在利比里亞的病情惡化得厲害,他打電話給他的妻子說再見。
但ZMapp三瓶存放在零度以下的溫度被空運到利比里亞。布蘭特利和Writebol服了藥,他們疏散到美國之前,他們的條件得到改善。
這個新的埃博拉病毒藥物的9個問題
如何防止機場埃博拉傳播?
組圖:埃博拉疫情在西非 組圖:埃博拉疫情在西非
圖:埃博拉疫情圖:埃博拉疫情
該藥物被認為是通過阻止病毒進入和感染新的細胞,以正常工作。它是一個三小鼠單克隆抗體 - 即小鼠暴露於埃博拉病毒的片段,並在小鼠的血液中所產生的抗體,收穫創建的藥。
雖然服藥後布蘭特利和Writebol的條件明顯改善,血清不應被視為靈丹妙藥,內科醫生和腸胃病豪爾赫·羅德里格斯博士說。
“我們要謹慎。我們甚至不知道是不是真的,如果這血是工作,”羅德里格斯說。“我現在,這些患者被送到醫院時,有那麼多的測試可以做,在這裡他們可以看到自己的身體,以這種血清的反應很高興,我們不知道,如果這些病人自然越來越好,還是血清真的做一些事情。“
很多人問,為什麼這兩個美國人接受實驗藥物有那麼多在西非也有病毒。
世界衛生組織說,它並沒有參與到布蘭特利治療和Writebol的決定。這兩名患者不得不同意接受藥物知道它從來沒有在人類身上測試過。
通過該藥物已提供給美國患者的過程中可能會根據美國食品和藥物管理局的“同情使用”的規定,允許進入臨床試驗外研藥物下降。
美國埃博拉病患似乎有所改善,“疾病預防控制中心負責人說
埃博拉病毒是如何蔓延
埃博拉不會通過空氣和水傳播。疾病傳播通過與受感染的器官和體液,如血液,唾液和尿接觸。
從歷史上看,勝算都沒有好。上一頁埃博拉疫情有90%的死亡率,但目前疫情在西非有可能是因為早期治療約60%的速度增長。
沒有埃博拉FDA批准的治療。埃默里會用“支持療法”以其2埃博拉病毒的病人,單位主管布魯斯Ribner博士說。
該裝置仔細地跟踪患者的症狀,生命體徵和器官的功能和使用輸血及透析使患者保持穩定。
美國國立衛生研究院計劃開始測試試驗埃博拉疫苗的人,早在九月。在靈長類動物試驗獲得了成功。
在20世紀90年代,一個埃博拉毒株拴猴子 - 埃博拉萊斯頓 - 被發現在美國,但沒有人得到了它生病了,根據疾病預防控制中心。
什麼是在一個平面上醒目埃博拉病毒的風險?
擔憂,測試蔓延非洲以外
一個人住院治療在紐約市在嚴格隔離週一和週二,等著去學習他是否有疾病。
病人近期前往西非之後病倒了,紐約的西奈山醫院說。
醫生們正試圖確認該男子的高熱和胃腸道症狀的原因。來自患者的標本被送到疾病控制中心和預防在亞特蘭大; 測試通常在48小時內完成,醫院在星期二說。
但是,“勝算這不是埃博拉,”傑里米得獎感言博士,西奈山醫療系統的首席醫療官說。“這更可能是它的一個更常見的情況。”
病人是穩定的週一晚上到週二,在“精神狀態良好,”在新聞發布會上週二在醫院說。
CNN首席醫學記者桑賈伊·古普塔博士表示贊同。大約半打的人最近從西非回來,並得到因症狀測試,但沒有對這些案件已被證實為伊波拉病毒,Gupta說。
在沙特阿拉伯的醫生也採取預防措施,因為他們對待一個40歲的男子誰最近從塞拉利昂返回。
該名男子情況危殆週二與病毒性出血熱的症狀,沙特衛​​生部說。
他的感染源尚不清楚,但埃博拉病毒不能被排除,該部說。

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