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5怎樣處理新聞中的專有名詞在收聽VOA新聞廣播中,聽眾會遇到大量的專有名詞(包括地名、人名、建築物名、機構

5怎樣處理新聞中的專有名詞 

在收聽VOA新聞廣播中,聽眾會遇到大量的專有名詞(包括地名、人名、建築物名、機構和條約名等),給理解增加了難度。其中地名常表示事件的發生地、消息來源或代表某國政府;任命是事件的當事者或發言人;機構、條約和建築物名常用來代表一定的組織機構和政府。這些專用名詞對聽眾理解新聞起著重要作用。那麼初學者在收聽過程中應該怎樣處理眾多的專有名詞呢?我們認為,總的原則是:就大不就小,分清主次,辨明從屬。現分述如下: 

地名主要指大洲、大洋、海域、河流、島嶼、國家及其首都名,還有歷史名城,國際會議城,各國下屬的州、省、邦名等。這些地名在新聞廣播中使用的頻率較高,可以說每一個節目中,甚至每一條新聞中都會涉及到幾個。例如: 

Egypt French President Francois Mitterrand says France and western nations do not want Iran or Iraq to destroy each other in their war. Mr. Mitterrand told newsmen in Aswan that western nations want to keep a balance between the two Persian Gulf countries. Iran and Iraq have been at war for more than two years. (Sp.) 

這條Special English新聞僅三句話,地名就出現了九次。如果我們不熟悉這些地名,是很難理解新聞的大意的。因此聽眾應儘量多記些大的,較重要的地名,以利於提高對聽力材料的理解能力。至於一些較小的地名可暫時不記。但有些小的地名由於與重大新聞事件有關,如切爾諾貝利(Chelobyle)與蘇聯1986426日的核電站爆炸時間有關,是人類矚目之地,經常在廣播節目中出現,聽眾也應設法熟悉或記住。又如沙烏地阿拉伯的麥加(Mecca)也不大,但它是伊斯蘭教第一聖地,加上1987731日沙特防暴員警在該地同前來朝聖的伊朗穆斯林發生衝突,導致重大流血事件,也令全世界關注。象這樣的地名,雖然小但很重要,如果記住並對其有所瞭解,對理解新聞廣播的內容將會大有好處。 

人名主要指各國的主要領導人(包括國王、國家元首、政府首腦、外交部長、國防部長、和各部門的新聞發言人等),各大國際組織的頭號人物以及一些重要的新聞人物(包括在野黨首要領導,反對派領導人等)。人名和地名一樣,出現頻率極高。但是人名一般都比地名要長,而且有的非英語國家的人名特別難記,有的則和漢語譯名的讀音"風馬牛不相及",如日本人的名字,初學者想記住他們是要花大氣力的。例如: 

Negotiators in Algiers are still talking to the hijackers of the Kuwaiti airliner but here are no signs that a settlement is near. Algerian officials met with gunmen aboard the jumbo jet several times on Sunday. The hijackers retracted an earlier threat to fly to another country and said they will give Algeria more time to negotiate. 

Meantime the Kuwaiti News Agency reported a prominent Arab figure will go to the Algiers Airport and appeal for an end to the hijacking. Algerian President talked by telephone Sunday with other Arab Heads of States including Kuwaiti Emir Sheik Jahmedal Akhmelal Sabar
Saudi King Fahd and Libyan Leader Muammar Qaddafh. The hijackers are demanding the release of 17 pro-Iranian terrorists jailed in Kuwaiti. The Kuwaiti government rejected the demand. (St.) 

這條新聞中連續出現了四個人名。應怎樣對待這些人名呢?我們認為,收聽新聞能不能記住人名有時並不十分關鍵。如果聽眾記住了足夠的國名及其政府,再加上聽眾知道一些主要頭銜,這樣就能比較準確地理解新聞內容了。在VOA廣播新聞中,每當提到某某人時,其格式通常是:國籍+職位或身份+姓名,在這三項中,如果我們能聽懂前面兩現,就能基本上把握新聞的意思。當然內由於一些主要國家領導人之間交往頻繁,他們往往在一些重大事件中扮演重要角色,因此,對他們的報導特別經常。對於這些人名,如果說記得又多又熟,反過來對收聽理解的幫助也就會更大。

機構名指世界上的各種國際性或區域性的組織或條約以及一些國家的國內組織機構等。這些機構和條約的名稱在節目中出現率也比較高。例如: 

The United States Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar and several western nations have expressed regret over the United States’ decision to withdraw from UNESCO. UNESCO is the United Nation’s Educational
Scientific and Cultural Organization. The State Department in Washington announced the decision to withdraw Thursday. A spokesman said UNESCO has become too political and has shown hostility toward the free press and the free market. He said the United States will withdraw from UNESCO at the end of 1984. Mr. Perez de Cuellar said he hopes a way will be found for the United States to remain in UNESCO. France and the Netherlands expressed disappointment over the United States’ decision. Britain said it shared America’s concerns about UNESCO but would remain in the organization. (Sp.) 

在這條新聞中UNESCO這一次出現達六次之多,如果不瞭解這一機構,是很難理解這條新聞的。下面介紹一下這些機構在廣播節目中的出現格式。 

一般說來,由於各種組織機構和條約的全稱都比較長,所以它們都有自己的縮寫形式。使用縮略詞傳遞資訊既簡單明瞭,又節約時間。在VOA廣播中,它們第一次大都以全稱的形式出現,而後往往只是以縮寫或者是先以縮寫形式出現,緊接著介紹其全稱。有些很常用的機構常常只以縮寫的形式出現。 

在詞彙學上,縮寫詞可分為兩類,即AcronymInitialism,它們既有聯繫又有區別。VOA1985525日的Words and Their Stories這一Special English專題節目中專門進行了介紹。請看下面的文字材料: 

Every people has its own special words and expressions. And one of the most interesting kinds of words in the English language is the acronym. An acronym is a word that is formed from the first letters of several other words. For example
OPEC is an acronym for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries. And an initialism is like an acronym but it does not sound like a real word itself. Instead it just states the first letters of other words. USA is an initialism for the United States of America. UN is an initialism for the United Naiton. 

Acronym and initialism are like language brothers
and both can be an easy way to shorten the title or name that has many words. It is easier to say VOA than to the Voice of America. But the same acronym or initialism may represent different organizations groups or names. For example the Voice of America is not he only organization with the initialism VOA. The Volkswagen of America Automobile Company uses the same three letters. So does the Volunteers of America Organization that helps poor people. This has been a growing problem for English speakers. Political leaders scientists and others have invented thousands of acronyms to describe everything from tax legislation to Space Vehicles. The great American writer H. L. Mencken observed correctly that many American feel a strong desire to reduce comlete names or ideas to the shortest possible form. Most of the world thinks aht the acronym NATO only means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However the same acronym also can mean the National Association of Theaters Owners in the United States. You can not be sure that the number of the PLO belongs to the Palestine Liberation Organization. He many really be a member of the Philippine Labor Organizaion or he may be a scientist helping to launch a rocket in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Pacific Launch Operation of the American Space Program. 

Do not feel bad if you find it difficult to follow so many acronyms and initialisms. You are not alone. Back in 1960
a group of language experts made a list of all the acronyms they could find in the English Language. Their list contained about 12000. These days however the number of the acronyms on the list has increased more than ten times. There are more than 100000 different acronyms. 

So
it is clear that acronyms and initialisms have become a permanent part of the English language. And the one I like best is MJ. Those letters do not represent Marine Jet Master of Journalism or Military Judge. They are just me Mas Joyce. 

通過上面的介紹,或許我們已經發現acronyminitialism的區別,我們還可以The World Book Dictionaryinitialism詞條下的詞義辨析中找到更為明確的答案:An initialism differs from an acronym in that it does not form a pronounceable word. Thus NATO and radar are acronyms whereas AAAS and vhf are initialisms.由此可見,它們之間的最大區別在欲acronyms要拼讀成單詞,而initialisms只能按字母一一拼讀。 

這兩種縮略詞都具有節省時間,新穎生動以及可回避禁忌語的特點,在廣播中大有用悟之地。但我們在收聽廣播時還應注意以下幾點: 

弄清它們的全稱和縮寫兩種形式,並注意縮寫形式大都為大寫字母; 

掌握它們之間的不同發音規則; 

收聽理解時應特別注意,同一個acronyminitialism有時具有不同的含義,表示不同的組織機構或條約。 

當然,要記住眾多的專有名詞不是一朝一夕的事情,這需要我們平時留心,慢慢積累。比如可做些小卡片,寫上一個國家的全稱、簡稱、首都、重要城市及國家元首和政府首腦的名字或者記上某一國際組織或條約的情況。這樣我們就能逐漸熟悉並掌握它們,從而幫助我們更快地聽懂英語廣播。 

6
怎樣理解新聞中的代詞 

代詞在英語廣播中使用的頻率很低,這是廣播文體的一大特點,是由廣播的傳播特點所決定的。據我們統計,代詞的使用僅占總詞數的1%。代詞數量減少,但人名、地名卻大大增多,具體名詞也增多了,這樣,能使語言表達更為精確,減少產生混亂、引起誤解的可能性。但根據需要或使語言簡潔起見,新聞廣播中有時還會出現一定數量的代詞。代詞的理解在閱讀中常常是中國學生的一個難點,在收聽VOA新聞時,這一問題就顯得更為突出了。所以我們應更加留神代詞的用法,在收聽時做到以下幾點: 

1)根據上下文來理解代詞。例: 

In a major escalation of hostilities
the United States and Iran today engaged in military clashes in the Persian Gulf. As VOA’s Wayne Corry reports from the Defense Department US forces have destroyed two Iranian Oil Platforms used for military purposes and have sunk an Iranian missile boat. US forces in the Gulf attacked and destroyed two Iranian Oil Platforms in retaliation for damage to a US warship caused by an Iranian mine. In a related clash Defense Secretary Frank Carlucci says American warships have sunk an Iranian missile boat. "The time of the engagement an Iranian missile boat approached our ships with obvious hostile attempt. It was warned off. It neglected the warning. It was engaged by US ships and has been sunk." Mr. Carlucci and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral William Crowe also says US forces fired missiles at two Iranian jet fighters. In other actions the Iranians attacked a US military helicopter and a small US supply ship. There are no details of those incidents. The events in the Gulf mark a major escalation of hostilities between the United States and Iranl. Wayne Corry VOA news the Defense Department. (St.) 

這條新聞中連續使用了三次it,但這要我們收聽時稍加注意就會知道,it這一代詞指的是上文中提到的an Iranian missile boat;同時我們根據上下文也容易知道those指的是上兩句這所提及的事件。 

2)通過對照收聽Special EnglishStandard English同一內容的新聞來明確代詞。前面說過Special English在詞和句兩個方面都有自己的寫作要求,因此對照收聽常常有助於我們克服理解上的困難。 

3)利用歷史背景知識來理解代詞。世界上的許多事情,比如幾大戰爭熱點,都有其歷史根源,兩國之間的緩解與惡化也都有其時代背景。所以如果聽眾不斷豐富自己的國際知識,也將有助於對新聞中代詞的理解。 

4)堅持收聽VOA對有關事件的系列報導。通過瞭解某一具體事件的發生、發展和結束這一全過程來判斷代詞。VOA新聞廣播中代詞的使用有時並不是以一天的某一事件為出發點,而是從有關事件的一系列報導來措辭的。因此堅持收聽也是解決代詞理解問題的有效方法之一。

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