TOEFL托福閱讀中詞彙題的解決策略

  詞彙題就是從具體的語境中理解詞彙。鑒於英語單詞的一詞多義,所以準確理解某一個單詞的意思需要依據語境

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  詞彙題就是從具體的語境中理解詞彙。鑒於英語單詞的一詞多義,所以準確理解某一個單詞的意思需要依據語境。這裡的語境就是我們所要閱讀的文章的上下文。一般來說通過上下文推斷或者猜測詞意,上下文中可以利用的資訊為,例句,對比詞,同義詞,反義詞或者其他段落的解釋等。此外,文章中一些特定搭配關係也可以幫助我們找到正確的答案。IBT的詞彙題考的都是近義詞,題目常見的問法如下:The word or phrase X is closest in meaning to ……, the word or phrase x could be best replaced by X.做這類題目,判斷所考察詞彙在原句中與其周圍詞彙的關係是關鍵,此外還要注意所考察詞彙的詞性。下面我們來看看常見的五種可以幫助我們迅速找到詞彙題答案的特殊關係。

  一、五類常見的詞彙關係:

  1. 直接反義關係該詞前或後出現的內容提示我們是反義關係。表示相反概念的詞語如下rather thaninsteadunlikecontraston the contrary.

  例如:

  The main conflict in the novel is between a mother who places a high value on hard

  work and honor and a son who repudiates his mother's values instead preferring the easier path to fortune and celebrity

  The word repudiates in the passage in closest in meaning to __

  A refuses to accept B lives up to C tries to understand D makes the best of

  假如repudiates我們不認識,從後面的小詞 instead 這個詞判定兒子和***價值觀念是相反的,由此資訊看四個選項,你會發現只有A選項帶有否定的意味

  2.並列關係:並列關係詞如下: andnot only ……but alsoas…asandboth … andeither… or neither… nor

  例如:

  She embarked on her career by working as a newspaper reporter in Wisconsin and soon began writing novels.

  The phrase embarked on in this sentence is closest in meaning to

  A took a trip to B started out on C improved upon D had a opinion about

  回到原文看embarked on周圍的詞語和它在這個句子中的作用。在這句中關健詞 and 其後出現soon began告訴我們前後方向是一致的,前面也必然和began有關,所以本題目的正解是B.

  3.解釋關係:後面的句子或短詞,單詞來解釋前面的詞。常見的標誌詞:Contribute tobe responsible foraccount forsince therefore forbecausein which

  例如:

  His big break came with the novel So big1924 ,which was awarded the Pulitzer in literature.

  The word break in this sentence could best be replaced by ___

  A Rupture B revelation C opportunity D rest

  which was awarded the Pulitzer in Literature告訴我們一定考查的是正態度,所以答案不可能是A D),所以應該選 C Opportunity 是一種有利的狀態或合適的時機。

  4. 動賓關係:看看賓語能否受動詞支配,或從動詞短語搭配去判定.

  例如:

  The oxidation of exhaust gases is one of primary sources of the world's pollutions. The brown haze that is poised over some of the world's largest cities is properly called photochemical smog.

  The word poised in this sentence is closest in meaning to__

  A interacting B sitting C blowing D poisoning

  首先從搭配關係上可以排除 interacting ,interact with 然後可以從上下文關係排除 blowing over 因為吹走了就是不會有smog.poison考試中及物才有pollute的含義,不及物只有一種含義表示投毒。

  5. 形容詞修飾名詞關係:

  例如:

  When the gas reaches the air, it comes into contact with available oxygen from atmosphere and combines with the oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide No2, which is a gas with a brownish hue.

  The word hue in this sentence is closest in meaning to

  Acolor Bodor Cthickness Dsmoke

  對於本題你會發現有個小詞brownish 呈褐色的,首先從形容詞修飾名詞關係可以直接排除B odor C thickness其次可以通過 a gas with brownish hue前面的 gas 排除 D smoke,用詞重複。所以正確答案是A.

  二、解決詞彙題的三大技巧:

  1、首先看是否認識, 如果在認識, 採用就近原則,在選項中找同義或近義詞, 並代入原文檢驗;如果不認識,4個選項代入原文, 看上下文是否合理。

  2、分析詞語在句子中的作用,瞭解詞性,然後按照上面提供的5類關係方法找出正確答案。

  3、看選項,如果選項的有2個答案都比較合適,根據詞彙搭配的5類關係,選擇在含義上與原詞最合適的。

  總之,根據原文章語境理解所要選擇詞彙的詞性和其在句中的作用,然後根據5類詞彙搭配關係來選擇合適的選項是解決這類題目的基礎,排除法是解決這類題的主要方法。

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