TOEFL托福閱讀表格題目的解決策略

  IBT閱讀中的表格題是新題型,同時在IBT聽力部分也出現了。與聽力部分不同的是,IBT閱讀部分的表格題既包括

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  IBT閱讀中的表格題是新題型,同時在IBT聽力部分也出現了。與聽力部分不同的是,IBT閱讀部分的表格題既包括了對全文重點內容的發問又包括了對全文主題和結論發問。它們以對比表格和總結表格的形式出現。相對於聽力表格題來說,閱讀部分的難度係數更大一些。在IBT閱讀的3篇文章中有兩個此類問題,且通常是文章最後一道題目,為2分。 

一、表格題分為兩大類:總結表格題和對比表格題。

1、總結表格題

相對而言,總結表格題的出現頻率要高於對比表格題,這是由它們自身特點,出題方式和原文是否具備對比對照關係這三方面的因素決定的。

2、題的出題模式有兩種

一種是針對全文內容出題,答案由全文的主題,細節和重點支援段落的概述三部分組成。另外一種是針對文章中的重點支持性段落出題,答案由這些重點支援性段落主題,段落結論,以及重點支持性例子的概述三部分組成。這裡我們重點看第一種出題模式。
我們來看一個例子,

The Atlantic Cod Fishery

Off the northeastern shore of North America, from the island of Newfoundland in Canada south to new England in the United States, there is a series of shallow areas called banks. Several large banks off Newfoundland are together called Grand Banks, huge shoals on the edge of North American continental shelf, where the warm waters of the Gulf Stream meet the cold waters of Labrador Current. As the currents brush each other, they stir up mineral from the ocean floor, providing nutrients for plankton and tiny shrimp-like creatures called krill, which feed on the plankton. Herring and other small fish rise to the surface to eat the krill. Groundfish, such as the Atlantic cod, live in the ocean’s bottom layer, congregating in the shallow waters where they prey on krill and small fish. This rich environment has produced cod by the millions and once had a greater density of cod than anywhere else on Earth.

Beginning in the eleventh century, boats from the ports of north western Europe arrived to fish the Grand Banks. For the next eight centuries, the entire Newfoundland economy taking fish back to European markets. Cod laid out to dry on wooden “flakes” was a common sight in the fishing villages dotting the coast. Settlers in the region used to think the only sea creature worth talking about was cod, and in the local speech the word “fish” became synonymous with cod. Newfoundland’s national dish was a pudding whose main ingredient was cod.

By the nineteenth century, the Newfoundland fishery was largely controlled by merchants based in the capital at St. John’s. They marketed the catch supplied by the fishers working out of more than 600 villages around the long coastline. In return, the merchants provided fishing equipment, clothing, and all the food that could not be grown in the island’s thin, rocky soil. This system kept the fishers in a continuous state of debt and dependence on the merchants.

Until the twentieth century, fishers believed in the cod’s ability to replenish itself and thought that overfishing was impossible. However, Newfoundland’s cod fishery began to show signs of trouble during the 1930s, when cod failed to support the fishers and thousands were unemployed. The slump lasted for the next few decades. Then when an international agreement decided to build up the modern Grand Banks fleet and make fishing a viable economic base for Newfoundland again. All of Newfoundland’s seafood companies were merged into one conglomerate. By the 1980s, the conglomerate was prospering, and cod were commanding excellent prices in the market. Consequently, there was a significant increase in the number of fishers and fish—processing plant workers.

However, while the offshore fishery was prospering, the inshore fishermen found their catches dropping off. In 1992, the Canadian government responded by closing the Grand Banks to groundfishing. Newfoundland’s cod fishing and processing industries were shut down in a bid to let the vanishing stocks recover. The moratorium was extended in 1994, when all of the Atlantic cod fisheries in Canada were closed, except for one in Nova Scotia, and strict quotas were placed on other species of groundfish. Canada’s cod fishing industry collapsed, and around 40,000 fishers and other industry workers were put out of work.

Atlantic cod stocks had once been so plentiful that early explorers joked about walking on the backs of the teeming fish. Today, cod stocks are at historically low levels and show no signs of imminent recovery, even after drastic conservation measures and severely limited fishing. Fishermen often blame the diminishing stocks on seals, which prey on cod and other species, but scientists believe that decades of overfishing are to blame. Studies on fish populations have shown that cod disappeared from Newfoundland at the same time that stocks started rebuilding in Norway, raising the possibility that the cod had migrated. Still, no one can predict whether and when the cod will return to the Grand Banks. ]
An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points

The Atlantic cod fishery has shaped Newfoundland’s economy for centuries.

1Cod fishing was so successful that few people considered the possibility of overfishing until fish stocks fell.

2Despite severe limits on fishing, cod stocks remain at low levels and show few signs of recovery.

3The Canadian government tried to diversity Newfoundland’s economy in the 1980s

Answer Choices

1Atlantic cod stocks were once plentiful in the rich environment around the Grand Banks.

2The Atlantic cod is a groundfish that preys on herring and small fish that eat krill.

3Cod fishing was so successful that few people considered the possibility of overfishing until fish stocks fell.

4The Canadian government tried to diversity Newfoundland’s economy in the 1980s.

5Despite severe limits on fishing, cod stocks remain at low levels and show few signs of recovery.

6Newfoundland exports millions of dollars worth of crab and other shellfish every year.

解題基本思路:首先確定這個題目屬於總結表格題,其主題為The Atlantic cod fishery has shaped Newfoundland’s economy for centuries.(鱈魚漁業帶動了紐芬蘭經濟發展已經有好幾個世紀。)後面三個分論點的內容都是圍繞這個論點展開:因為漁業的發達人們忽略了過度捕殺來的問題;儘管採取各種限制捕殺政策,鱈魚的庫存還是不斷減少而其數量也沒有回升的跡象;加拿大政府從20世紀80年代開始想辦法來繁榮紐芬蘭的經濟。通過對上面這些句子和主題的分析,我們已經可以猜出文章的主要內容,人們的過度捕殺導致自己的經濟來源-鱈魚數量不斷減少。根據這個理解然後看答案。根據文章內容,我們知道選項 A C E與文章的內容和題目表格內容相符合。其中B內容在文章中有,但是不符合,D的內容也是正確的,但是與E相比,E更合適,而F 直接排除掉。

3、總結表格題做題三大步驟
判斷題目類型(全文型還是段落型)--------------根據題目類型找主題、細節和支援性段落/事例--------採用排除法找出正確答案。

4、對比表格題

對比表格題都會有明確的對比項,也就是在文章中幾個不同事物之間相對比。
這類型的題目相對於總結表格題來說簡單。只要按照文章題目的要求,返回原文去找和要求意思相近的答案就可以了。其具體解題方法和總結表格題相同,所以這裡就不贅述了。

總之,判斷題目類型(總結表格題和對比表格題)--------------根據題目類型找主題、細節和支援性段落/事例--------採用排除法找出正確答案是解決這類問題的最佳策略。

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