America's weird and amazing rock formations美國的怪異和驚人的岩層

 

By Autumn Spanne, Special to CNN
May 19, 2014 -- Updated 1822 GMT (0222 HKT)

 

Just a few miles east of Yosemite National Park, visitors will find tufa towers rising out of the waters at Mono Lake, a body of water more than twice as salty as the ocean.Just a few miles east of Yosemite National Park, visitors will find tufa towers rising out of the waters at Mono Lake, a body of water more than twice as salty as the ocean.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Mono Lake, California
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STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Nature is the artist for much of the wild rock sculpture across the U.S.
  • Rock formations have been formed by water, wind and the occasional volcano
  • One Utah park features mushroom-like rock pillars shaped by water erosion
  • Remember that some sites are sacred to Native American nations

(CNN) -- Our planet is chock full of the beautiful and bizarre.

Give nature millions of years to work its magic and some pretty weird formations emerge from solid rock.

 
The best parks in the U.S.
 
Watch lava flow into ocean
 
Falling Rock Danger at Yosemite

From violent volcanic eruptions to the slow movement of wind and water, the forces of nature have made the United States, particularly the western half of the country, a showcase for wild-looking sculpture.

Here are some of the most awe-inspiring places in the country to witness these odd rock formations:

Mono Lake Tufa State Natural Reserve, California

To visit Mono Lake is to behold an other-worldly landscape. Located just 13 miles east of Yosemite National Park, this ancient lake receives salt and minerals from Sierra streams, creating calcium carbonate spires called tufa towers that rise majestically from the water. As fresh water evaporates from the lake, it leaves behind the salt, making the lake more than twice as salty as the ocean and offering visitors the opportunity for a buoyant swim during warmer summer months. In winter, snow glitters dramatically on the tufas.

Stop at the visitors center to learn more about the natural history of the region, then try the self-guided nature trail to experience this unique landscape firsthand. It's a paradise for photographers and nature lovers.

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Goblin Valley State Park, Utah

Southern Utah is one of the most spectacular geological shows on Earth. With so many peculiar rock formations here, visits to Bryce Canyon, Arches or Canyonlands National Parks, to name a few, will not disappoint. But two parks really stand out in the category of rocks with character.

One is Goblin Valley State Park near the town of Green River. Below dramatic red buttes and cliffs lies a valley populated with thousands of uncannily mushroom-shaped hoodoos, rock pillars shaped by water erosion and dust blown across the valley, that resemble goblins. Every hour and every weather condition creates a different mood in this surreal landscape. In the winter, the park offers snowshoeing and skiing amid a breathtaking scene of snow on red rocks. Stay for sunset and see the goblins glow like burning embers.

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Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah

Escalante-Grand Staircase National Monument is Utah's other rock star. This enormous, 1.7 million acre property offers hikes to spectacular formations like Metate Arch in Devil's Garden and the Wahweap Hoodoos, slender, ghostly rocks that can reach several stories high. For a short and easy hike, try the Toadstools Trail to see special white, beige and red hoodoos formed by large boulders perched above softer, eroded rock. They give new meaning to the term "magic mushrooms."

Stop at the Bureau of Land Management office in Kanab or Escalante to review maps, learn about weather advisories and other information important in preparing for the harsh conditions in this sometimes other-worldly land.

Shiprock, Navajo Nation, New Mexico

 
Wandering among giants
 
National parks face budget cuts

Driving north from Gallup, New Mexico, on State Route 491 toward the Four Corners Monument, one passes through the vast, arid lands of the eastern Navajo Nation. To the north are the Rockies. To the west, the Chuska Mountains on the border of Arizona and New Mexico. And to the east, the dusty, sparsely-vegetated landscape of the San Juan Basin seems to go on forever, like a wide dry sea. But eventually, a jagged dark figure looms on the horizon like ship sailing through the desert -- or, as Navajos refer to it, "rock with wings."

Shiprock is the remnants of a volcano that erupted more than 30 million years ago. At nearly 1,600 feet, it's the single most prominent figure on this desert landscape. There are no amenities at the site, and it is forbidden to hike or climb on this sacred peak. Just pull off the road for a stunning photo, or walk around to enjoy sound of the wind as it blows dramatic cloud shadows across the plain, and contemplate the immensity of this powerful place.

Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada

Just an hour's drive from the Las Vegas Strip, Valley of Fire State Park offers a number of impressive rock formations created by shifting sand dunes during the Mesozoic era some 150 million years ago. Of the dozens of beautiful and odd formations you'll find here, perhaps none is stranger than Elephant Rock, where erosion has sculpted a slanted arch resembling an elephant's trunk and body.

There is a parking lot less than a mile from Elephant Rock and a walking trail to the site. Come on a summer's day when the sun is blazing down on the red sandstone, and you'll agree that the park was aptly named: It's an oven. The rest of the year offers more comfortable temperatures for doing short, relatively easy hikes with opportunities to see wildlife, petrified wood and petroglyphs.

Chimney Rock National Historic Site, Nebraska

Chimney Rock was a welcome landmark for pioneers making arduous westward journeys along the Oregon, Mormon and California Trails in the early 19th century. The narrow spire juts from a base of volcanic ash and clay, the remnant of an eruption sharpened into a slender tower by millions of years of erosion.

A state-owned buffer zone around the rock has prevented development near the site, allowing visitors to see it rise from the grassy prairie in much the same way as pioneers traveling overland in covered wagons. The Nebraska State Historical Society runs a visitor center with information on the natural and human history associated with the Chimney Rock.

Makoshika State Park, Montana

This park's strange and beautiful rock formations were formed by the Yellowstone River and various streams that have cut through the rock over millions of years, carving out hoodoos, spires and caprocks. The name Makoshika comes from a Lakota word for badlands.

Short walks of less than 2 miles afford great views. Try the Cap Rock Nature Trail, the Diane Gabriel Trail and the Kinney Coulee Trail, located just outside the park, which descends into a canyon with a diversity of hoodoos. This is also dinosaur country: Check out the complete Triceratops skull on display at the visitor center, along with remains of a Tyrannosaurus Rex and a rare Thescelosaurus.

Turnip Rock, Michigan

The unglamorously named Turnip Rock is a stunning sight, particularly on a warm sunny day when the clear, blue-green waters of Lake Huron sparkle. Wave erosion has caused this flat, tree-covered rock island to taper to a narrow base, around which people swim in the summer months.

Turnip Rock is located in a portion of eastern Michigan dubbed the Thumb, where 140 miles of coastline and waterfront towns offer a variety of outdoor activities, including biking, walking and kayaking.

It's just offshore from private property inaccessible to the general public, so a good way to approach the rock is by kayak, which can be rented in the small village of Port Austin. Kayaking out in pre-dawn darkness to catch the sun rise behind Turnip Rock is a special treat for experienced kayakers. During winter months, the rock ceases to be an island as the lake ices over, creating another dazzling scene.

Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

It is more imposing than any skyscraper as it comes into view, rising more than 867 feet from a grassy, tree-dotted hillside in northeast Wyoming. Devils Tower is not the remnant of an erupted volcano, but instead a place where magma welled up inside the surrounding rock and then cooled. When the rock eroded away, this cylindrical tower with a texture that resembles bear claw marks remained. Many Native American tribes consider it sacred.

There are 8 miles of nature trails around the monument that take visitors through grasslands and ponderosa pine forests at its base. Rangers also lead tours of the monument, and the visitors center offers programs and exhibits about the ecological, geological and cultural features of the site.

While Devils Tower is a popular site for climbers, this conflicts with some tribes' beliefs about how a sacred site should be treated. The National Park Service asks climbers to voluntarily refrain from ascending during the month of June. Rest assured that the view of the tower from its base is magnificent.

Garden of the Gods, Colorado Springs, Colorado

It's not what comes to most people's minds when they picture a city park, but the City of Colorado Springs owns and maintains this grand, nearly 1,300-acre assemblage of red rock cliffs, spires and boulders.

The park's most famous formation is Balanced Rock, an enormous boulder that from certain angles appears to defy the laws of physics as it perches precariously on the edge of a ledge. This makes it a favorite photo op, of course. The short, easy Siamese Twins trail also offers impressive views of snow-capped Pikes Peak.

Monument Rocks, Kansas

It's a bit of a surprise to be driving through farmlands near Lewis, Kansas, and suddenly spot a series of tall chalk towers on the horizon. The collection of rocks is a national landmark that looks something like a Stonehenge on the prairie. However, the monoliths at Monument Rocks were carved not by human hands, but by wind and water after a sea that once covered the region receded. That means the rocks also contain a lot of fossils.

Visitors can walk among the towers, but be aware: This is private property, and the rocks are very fragile -- so walk lightly here and don't scramble around or dig among them.

Natural Bridge, Virginia

Located in the southern end of the Shenandoah Valley, Natural Bridge is not only an impressive natural wonder and a national historic landmark, it is steeped in early American history and immortalized in the works of mid-19th century Hudson River School landscape painters Frederic Edwin Church and David Johnson.

Cedar Creek, which feeds the James River, carved out an enormous portal in this more than 200-foot high limestone tower, which was once part of an underground cavern that collapsed through the process of water erosion. (Visitors can still tour nearby caverns, the deepest on the East Coast.) Along with Niagara Falls, Natural Bridge was considered one of early America's great natural wonders.

Revered by the Monacan tribe as a sacred place, Natural Bridge was later purchased by Thomas Jefferson, who kept it in his estate for the rest of his life. It remained a privately-owned property until earlier this year, when the State of Virginia announced that the bridge and 1,500 surrounding acres would become a state park property by the end of 2015. It is a scenic starting point from which to explore the Cedar Creek Trail and the Monacan Indian Living History Village.

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

The island of Hawaii is one of the few places where it's possible to directly witness how volcanoes create strange formations. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park rises from sea level to 13,677 feet at the Mauna Loa Crater and includes diverse geological features like cinder cones, pit craters and living lava.

The two active volcanoes here are Mauna Loa and Kilauea. Check out the Banana Lava Flow at the end of Chain of Craters Road, where you may see lava pouring directly into the ocean, and walk the trail leading through the Thurston Lava Tube, a tunnel formed by hot lava flowing beneath a hardened surface. Another intriguing hike is the 1974 Lava Tree and Keanakakoi Crater Hike, which loops through a forest destroyed by a lava flow that coated the trees -- some of which remain standing, although in much-altered form.

A word of caution: Stop at the visitor center before venturing to more active parts of the volcano. Although it's possible to get up close and personal with hot, flowing lava, it is dangerous. Know the risks before you go.

 

 

 

秋Spanne,特別向CNN
2014年5月19日 - 更新1822 GMT(0222 HKT)
只是東優勝美地國家公園只有幾英里,遊客會發現鈣華塔上升了水在莫諾湖,水體的兩倍多咸的海洋。只是東優勝美地國家公園只有幾英里,遊客會發現鈣華塔上升了水在莫諾湖,水體的兩倍多咸的海洋。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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莫諾湖,加利福尼亞州
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故事突出
  • 自然風景是藝術​​家大部分在美國野生的岩石雕塑
  • 岩層已經被水,風和偶爾的火山形成
  • 一猶他州公園設有蘑菇狀的岩柱形水蝕
  • 請記住,有些網站是神聖的美洲原住民的民族

(CNN) -我們的地球是充滿美麗和奇異的。

讓大自然億萬年的工作,它的魔力和一些非常奇怪的編隊從堅硬的岩石出現。

 
在美國最好公園
 
觀看熔岩流入大海
 
落石危險在優勝美地

從猛烈的火山爆發,以風和水的緩慢運動,自然的力量已經取得了美國,全國特別是西部一半,為野生尋找雕塑的展示。

下面是一些最令人驚嘆的地方,在全國見證這些奇怪的岩層:

莫諾湖土法國家自然保護區,加利福尼亞州

參觀莫諾湖是看哪一個不食人間煙火的景觀。位於東優勝美地國家公園僅13英里,這個古老的湖泊接收來自塞拉利昂流鹽分和礦物質,創造碳酸鈣尖頂稱為鈣華塔的莊嚴升起從水中。新鮮水從湖中蒸發,它留下了鹽的背後,使得兩倍咸的海洋湖泊多,並在溫暖的夏季為遊客提供了機會蓬勃游泳。在冬天,雪大幅度閃爍的tufas。

停在遊客中心,詳細了解該地區的自然史,然後嘗試自導自然教育徑,以親身體驗這個獨特的風景線。這是攝影愛好者的天堂和大自然愛好者。

世界上最可怕的,最好的水滑梯

精靈谷州立公園,猶他州

南猶他州是最壯觀的地質展示地球上之一。有了這麼多奇怪的岩層在這裡,參觀布萊斯峽谷,拱門,峽谷地國家公園,僅舉幾例,也不會讓人失望。但兩個園區真正站出來在岩石的種類與性質。

一個是精靈谷州立公園附近的綠河的小鎮。下面戲劇性的紅山和懸崖在於填充了成千上萬的驚異蘑菇狀石林,石柱形被水侵蝕和灰塵穿過山谷吹,類似於妖精山谷。每一小時和每一個天氣狀況產生不同的心情在這個超現實的景觀。在冬季,公園提供雪鞋和滑雪中的雪紅色岩石的壯麗景象。留日落,看 ​​到了妖精煥發像燃燒的餘燼。

在美國10創紀錄的自然奇觀

大階梯 - 埃斯卡蘭特國家紀念碑,猶他

埃斯卡蘭特-大樓梯國家紀念碑是爵士隊的其他搖滾巨星。這個巨大的170萬英畝的財產提供了上漲到壯觀的編隊就像Metate拱魔鬼的花園和Wahweap石林,修長,幽靈般的岩石,可以達到幾層樓高。對於一個簡短易加息,請嘗試毒菌步道看到由上述比較柔和,侵蝕岩石棲息的大石頭形成特殊的白色,米色和紅色石林。他們給新的意義的術語“迷幻蘑菇”。

停止在土地管理辦公室局卡納布或埃斯卡蘭特審查的地圖,了解天氣諮詢和其他信息在準備在這個有時不食人間煙火土地的苛刻條件重要。

登上Shiprock,納瓦霍部落,新墨西哥

 
巨頭之間徘徊
 
國家公園面臨預算削減

來自蓋洛普,新墨西哥州駕駛北部,國道491往四角紀念碑,人們通過東納瓦霍部落的遼闊,貧瘠土地。在北面是落基山脈。到西部,亞利桑那州和新墨西哥州的邊界Chuska山。而到了東部,聖胡安盆地的塵土飛揚的,稀疏的植被景觀,似乎永遠繼續下去,就像一個廣泛的幹海。但最終,一個鋸齒狀的黑影籠罩在諸如船舶航行地平線穿越沙漠 - 或者像納瓦霍人提到它,“岩石的翅膀。”

登上Shiprock是一個火山爆發30多萬年前的遺跡。在近1600尺,它是在這個沙漠景觀的一個最突出的人物。有沒有設施的站點,它是被禁止的加息或攀上這神聖的高峰。剛剛停靠在路邊的一個令人驚嘆的照片,或四處走走,享受風聲,因為它吹穿越平原戲劇性的雲影,思考這個強大的地方的廣袤。

消防州立公園,內華達州谷

從拉斯維加斯大道僅有一個小時的車程,消防州立公園的山谷提供了大量的中生代期間,大約150萬年前流動沙丘創建令人印象深刻的岩層。幾十個美麗而奇怪的編隊,你會發現在這裡,也許沒有比大象岩,其中侵蝕雕刻傾斜的拱類似大象的軀幹和身體的陌生人。

沒有什麼比從大象岩和步行道到現場一英里少一個停車場。來吧,當太陽上的紅砂岩下來熾烈的夏天的一天,你會同意,該公園被恰當地命名為:這是一個烤箱。在今年餘下時間,提供更舒適的溫度做短,相對容易的上漲有機會看到野生動物,木化石和岩畫。

煙囪岩國家歷史遺址,內布拉斯加

煙囪岩是一個值得歡迎的里程碑先驅使得艱鉅的旅程向西沿俄勒岡州,摩門教和加利福尼亞步道在19世紀初。由火山灰和粘土的基礎狹窄的尖頂伸出,噴發的遺跡經過數百萬年的侵蝕削尖成一個細長的塔。

岩石圍繞國有緩衝區已阻止的發展在工地附近,讓遊客看到它從草草原上升,在大致相同的方式,開拓者在有蓋貨車陸路旅行。內布拉斯加州立歷史協會運行一個遊客中心,在與煙囪岩相關的自然和人文歷史信息。

Makoshika國家公園,蒙大拿州

這個公園的奇特和美麗的岩層是由黃石河,並通過岩石已經削減了數百萬年,雕刻出石林,尖頂和蓋層各種流形成的。這個名字Makoshika來自於荒地一個拉科塔字。

的不到2英里短距離散步買得起的美景。嘗試蓋層自然教育徑,黛安加布里埃爾徑和金尼古力步道,剛好位於公園外,其降入一個峽谷石林的多樣性。這也是恐龍國家:檢查出完整的三角龍的頭骨上展出了遊客中心,以及遺體霸王龍和難得一見Thescelosaurus的。

蘿蔔岩石,密歇根州

該unglamorously命名蘿蔔搖滾是一個驚人的景象,特別是在一個溫暖的晴天時的休倫湖閃耀清澈,藍綠色的海水。海浪侵蝕造成這種平坦,樹木覆蓋的岩石小島匯聚到狹窄的基礎,在其周圍游泳的人在夏季。

蘿蔔岩位於東部的部分密歇根州被稱為拇指,其中140英里的海岸線和海濱城鎮提供各種戶外活動,包括騎自行車,步行和劃皮艇。

這只是從離岸私人財產無法向一般公眾,所以接近搖滾的好辦法是皮艇,可在港奧斯汀的小村莊租用。皮划艇在黎明前的黑暗趕上蘿蔔背後的岩石太陽升起的是有經驗的皮划艇運動員一種特殊的享受。在冬季的幾個月裡,岩石不再是一個島嶼的湖冰過來,創建另一個令人眼花繚亂的景象。

魔鬼塔國家紀念碑,懷俄明州

它比任何摩天大樓更有氣勢,因為它映入眼簾,從一片草地,綠樹點綴在山坡懷俄明州東北部上升超過867英尺。魔鬼塔是不是火山爆發的遺跡,而是一個地方,岩漿湧出內周圍的岩石,然後冷卻。當岩石被侵蝕掉,這個圓柱形的塔樓類似於熊爪痕紋理依然存在。許多印第安部落認為這是神聖的。

有8個方圓數英里的紀念碑性質的小徑,帶遊客穿過草原和黃松林在它的基礎的。流浪者還會導致碑之旅,以及遊客中心提供有關該網站的生態,地質和文化特色活動和展覽。

雖然魔鬼塔是一個受歡迎的網站為登山者,這與一些部落的信仰衝突有關如何聖地應及時治療。國家公園管理局要求登山者從升六月份期間自願的事。請放心,從它的基塔的看法是壯觀。

眾神花園,科羅拉多斯普林斯,科羅拉多州

這不是什麼涉及到大多數人的心目中,當他們描繪一個城市公園,但城市科羅拉多斯普林斯的擁有和維護這個盛大,近1300畝的組合赤岩絕壁,尖頂和石塊。

公園最有名的形成是平衡岩,從某些角度看來違抗物理定律,因為它搖搖欲墜棲息在窗台邊上一個巨大的巨石。這使得它當然最喜歡的照片運算。短,易連體線索也提供了令人印象深刻的景色雪山派克峰。

紀念碑岩石,堪薩斯

這是一個有點出人意料,通過近劉易斯,堪薩斯州,農田開車,突然發現了一系列在地平線上高高粉筆塔。岩石的集合是一個國家地標,看起來像一個巨石陣在草原上。然而,在巨石紀念碑岩石海,一旦覆蓋區域退去後刻不被人的手,而是由風和水。這意味著在岩石中還含有大量的化石。

遊客可以在塔中行走,但要注意:這是私人財產,而岩石是非常脆弱的 - 這樣輕輕地走在這裡,不爭搶周圍或其中挖。

天然橋,弗吉尼亞州

位於雪蘭多山谷的南端,天然橋不僅是一個令人印象深刻的自然奇觀和一個國家歷史地標,它是沉浸在美國早期歷史和不朽的19世紀中葉哈得遜河學校的風景作品畫家弗雷德里克·埃德溫·教會和大衛·約翰遜。

錫達河,這助長了詹姆斯河,雕刻出一個巨大的門戶網站在這200多英尺高的石灰石塔,它曾經是一個地下洞穴,通過水的侵蝕過程倒塌的一部分。(遊客依然可以遊覽附近的溶洞,最深的在東海岸。)隨著尼亞加拉大瀑布,自然橋被認為是美國早期最偉大的自然奇觀之一。

由摩納哥族人視為神聖的地方崇敬,天然橋是由托馬斯·杰斐遜,誰一直在他的莊園,他的餘生後購買。它仍然是一個私人擁有的財產,直到今年早些時候,當弗吉尼亞州宣布,橋樑和1,500畝的周邊將成為一個國家公園物業在2015年年底,它是前往探索雪松溪風景秀麗的起點徑及摩納哥印度活歷史村。

夏威夷火山國家公園

夏威夷島是少數幾個地方有可能直接目睹火山如何創建奇怪的編隊。之一,夏威夷火山國家公園從海平面上升到13677英尺在冒納羅亞火山口,並包括不同的地質特性,如渣錐,坑隕石坑和生活熔岩。

這裡的兩座活火山是冒納羅亞和基拉韋厄火山。退房的香蕉熔岩流在火山口路,在那裡你可以看到熔岩直接澆入海洋鏈的末端,然後步行通過領先的瑟斯頓熔岩管,通過熱熔岩流硬化表面之下形成一個隧道的踪跡。另一個有趣的加息是1974年的熔岩樹和Keanakakoi火山遠足,它遍歷森林由塗樹熔岩流摧毀 - 其中一些仍然站立,雖然在很多改變的形式。

要注意的是:冒險火山的更積極的部件之前,停在遊客中心。儘管可以得到近距離和個人用熱,熔岩流淌,它是危險的。知道風險在你走之前。

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