TOEFL托福最新寫作題型舉例解析

  Writing based on Reading and Listening   Directions   For this taskyou will first have five

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  Writing based on Reading and Listening

  Directions

  For this taskyou will first have five minutes to read a passage about an academic topic. You may take notes on the passage if you wish. The passage will then be removed and you will listen to a lecture about the same topic. While you listenyou may also take notes.

  Then you will have 20 minutes to write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the lecture you heard and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. You will be able to see the reading passage again when it is time for you to write. You may use your notes to help you answer the question.

  Typicallyan effective response will be 150 to 225 words long. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on the completeness and accuracy of the content. If you finish your response before time is upyou may click on Next to go on to the second writing task.

  Now you will see the reading passage for five minutes. Remember it will be available to you again when you write immediately after the reading time ends. The lecture will beginso keep your headset on until the lecture is over.

  Directions

  You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typicallyan effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

  Altruism is a type of behavior in which an animal sacrifices its own interest for that of another animal or group of animals. Altruism is the opposite of selfishnessindividuals performing altruistic acts gain nothing for themselves.

  Examples of altruism aboundboth among humans and among other mammals. Unselfish acts among humans range from the sharing of food with strangers to the donation of body organs to family membersand even to strangers. Such acts are altruistic in that they benefit anotheryet provide little reward to the one performing the act.

  In factmany species of animals appear willing to sacrifice foodor even their lifeto assist other members of their group. The meerkatwhich is a mammal that dwells in burrows in grassland areas of Africais often cited as an example. In groups of meerkatsan individual acts as a sentinelstanding guard and looking out for predators while the others hunt for food or eat food they have obtained. If the sentinel meerkat sees a predator such as a hawk approaching the groupit gives an alarm cry alerting the other meerkats to run and seek shelter. By standing guardthe sentinel meerkat gains nothing—it goes without food while the others eatand it places itself in grave danger. After it issues an alarm it has to flee alonewhich might make it more at risk to a predatorsince animals in groups are often able to work together to fend off a predator. So the altruistic sentinel behavior helps ensure the survival of other members of the meerkat‘s group.

  Narrator

  Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

  Professor

  You knowoften in sciencenew findings force us to re-examine earlier beliefs and assumptions. And a recent study of meerkats is having exactly this effect. The study examined the meerkat‘s behavior quite closelymuch more closely than had ever been done before. And some interesting things were found……like about eating habits……it showed that typically meerkats eat before they stand guard——so the ones standing guard had a full stomachAnd the study also found that since the sentinel is the first to see a predator comingit’s the most likely to escape……because it often stands guard near a burrowso it can run immediately into the burrow after giving the alarm. The other meerkatsthe ones scattered about looking for foodare actually in greater danger.

  And in factother studies have suggested that when an animal creates an alarmthe alarm call might cause the other group members either to gather together or else to move about very quicklybehaviors that might actually draw the predator‘s attention away from the callerincreasing that animal’s own chances of survival.

  And what about people——what about some human acts that might be considered altruisticLet‘s take an extreme caseuhsuppose a person donates a kidney to a relativeor even to a complete stranger. A selfless actrightBut……doesn’t the donor receive appreciation and approval from the stranger and from societyDoesn‘t the donor gain an increased sense of self worthCouldn’t such non-material rewards be considered very valuable to some people

  Altruism is a type of behavior in which an animal sacrifices its own interest for that of another animal or group of animals. Altruism is the opposite of selfishnessindividuals performing altruistic acts gain nothing for themselves.

  Examples of altruism aboundboth among humans and among other mammals. Unselfish acts among humans range from the sharing of food with strangers to the donation of body organs to family membersand even to strangers. Such acts are altruistic in that they benefit anotheryet provide little reward to the one performing the act.

  In factmany species of animals appear willing to sacrifice foodor even their lifeto assist other members of their group. The meerkatwhich is a mammal that dwells in burrows in grassland areas of Africais often cited as an example. In groups of meerkatsan individual acts as a sentinelstanding guard and looking out for predators while the others hunt for food or eat food they have obtained. If the sentinel meerkat sees a predator such as a hawk approaching the groupit gives an alarm cry alerting the other meerkats to run and seek shelter. By standing guardthe sentinel meerkat gains nothing—it goes without food while the others eatand it places itself in grave danger. After it issues an alarm it has to flee alonewhich might make it more at risk to a predatorsince animals in groups are often able to work together to fend off a predator. So the altruistic sentinel behavior helps ensure the survival of other members of the meerkat‘s group.

  Question

  Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heardexplaining how they cast doubt on points made in the reading.

  Narrator

  Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heardexplaining how they cast doubt on points made in the reading.

  

  這是與讀、聽結合的寫作任務。這一題型是關於學術方面的,閱讀文章講述的是一個學術問題,聽力部分是課堂授課的節選,內容與閱讀文章有關,但是從不同的角度討論同一個問題。聽力中的內容有可能是支援閱讀文章的觀點,也有可能是反對閱讀文章中的內容。考生永遠需要總結聽力中的觀點,但同時需要闡述聽力中的觀點與閱讀文章中觀點的關係。

  閱讀文章是關於動物的一種捨己為人的行為,基本觀點有:人類的捨己為人的行為有比如:與人分享食品、捐獻器官。然後以meerkat這種動物為例,說明動物也有捨己為人的行為。Meerkat的幾種行為說明他們是捨己為人的:擔任警衛工作的meerkat在同類狩獵或是吃飯的時候,負責觀察是否有敵人靠近,一旦有敵人靠近就發出警報以通知同類逃離,做出的犧牲就是沒有吃東西就站崗;發出警報後只能獨自逃離,增加了被捕食的危險。聽力部分從相反的角度反對這一觀點,提出的觀點有:meerkat的進食習慣,新的發現是站崗的meerkat實際上是第一個吃東西的,而不是餓著肚子站崗;站崗的meerkat站在洞口附近,一旦發現危險,可以立即跑進洞中,成為最有可能逃離危險的一個,那些東出去找食物的同類反倒更危險。關於人類捐獻器官,教授認為其實捐獻者得到了社會的讚揚,自身價值的提高等非物質的報償。

  考生需要從三個方面進行對比討論:

  閱讀文章中的觀點聽力中的觀點

  人類的器官捐獻是無私的行為人類的器官捐獻得到來自社會的承認和讚譽。

  meerkat衛兵不吃東西就去站崗Meerkat為兵早於其同類吃飯才去站崗

  Meerkat衛兵被捕食的危險最大meerkat實際上是最容易逃離危險的

  同樣的,好的回答一定是讓沒有聽過對話的人也能明白你在講些什麼地回答。

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