TOEFL托福口語解碼(一)

  對於廣大準備到海外求學的託福考生而言,2006915日實施的新託福無疑是個陌生的領域,而其中的口語部

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  對於廣大準備到海外求學的託福考生而言,2006915日實施的新託福無疑是個陌生的領域,而其中的口語部分由於首次在託福考試中亮相而倍顯神秘。

  新託福的口語部分類比了北美大學課堂的學術氣氛及學生在校園生活的方方面面,要求考生能夠做課堂筆記、發表自己的意見和看法,並具備對教授推薦的參考書寫讀書報告、闡明論點的能力,以及其它處理校園生活中可能遇到的各種情況的能力。

  現行的託福雖然不設口語測試,但其姐妹篇TSETest of Spoken English)恰好彌補了這方面的不足。新託福的口試也將在現行TSE考試的基礎上孕育產生。

  相對於TSE而言,新託福的口試在形式與內容上有了繼承的發展。

  TSE的形式與內容

  TSE考試全部過程約為60分鐘,但實際考試時間僅為20分鐘,而考生錄到磁帶上的答題錄音累計時間則更短,僅為6分鐘左右。

  試題的指導說明在試題冊和制好的試題磁帶上,考生對試題的回答將和題幹一併錄入空白的答題磁帶上。

  現行TSE考試試題共分為七部分:

  (1)用錄音提問一些考生本人的基本情況。每一問題之後,有短暫的答題時間,在實際考試中,答題時間每題約為15秒鐘。

  (2)題冊上給出一篇短文。考生先用一分鐘時間閱讀,然後用一分鐘時間朗讀。要求發音準確,口齒清晰,朗讀流暢。

  (3)題冊上給出一系列不完整的句子,考生可隨自己的思路加以補充完成。答案可以不同,但完成的句子要意思完整,語法準確。實際考試時,完成每個句子允許用10秒鐘時間。

  (4)題冊上給出一組系列故事的連環畫。考生進行看圖說話。考生可先用一分鐘看這些畫面,然後再用一分鐘敘述故事,敘述時應盡可能準確和詳細。

  (5)題冊上給出一副畫和就此畫提出的4個問題。在聽問題之前可以看圖一分鐘,然後仔細聽題並作答。回答時,考生應在允許的時間裡盡可能多說一些,每一題回答時允許用12秒鐘時間。

  (6)要求考生描述某些事物或就國際上普遍關注的話題發表意見。考生在允許時間裡對每一問題要盡可能多加評論。評分取決於考生如何表達思想的方式,而不取決於觀點本身。考試中,回答每個問題的時間為45秒鐘。

  (7)題冊上給出班級、俱樂部或會議等的活動日程或通知。考生可先仔細閱讀一分鐘後,用一分鐘時間解釋這些日程或通知。解釋時一定要包括所有重要的細節,並要設想自己是對很多聽眾作解釋,而不能僅僅翻譯這些日程或通知。

  可見,現行的TSE通過對以上七部分內容的測試,基本上可以判斷出考生的英語口頭表達能力,包括語音、語調及語法的掌握程度。

  新託福口語的形式與內容

  我個人認為TSE考試在託福改題之後仍會繼續考察一段時間,從而逐步淡出歷史舞臺。而取而代之的新託福可以說是TSE考試的加強版。這個部分共有6道題,持續約20分鐘,包括獨立回答題,讀聽後回答題和先聽後答題等三種題型,以考察學生的閱讀理解,聽力理解和口語表達等綜合能力。下面我們就結合ETS對新託福口語部分的指導說明來揭開新託福口語的神秘面紗”:

  Speaking Section Directions In this section of the test, you will be able to demonstrate your ability to speak about a variety of topics. You will answer six questions by speaking into the microphone. Answer each of the questions as completely as possible.

  In questions one and two, you will speak about familiar topics. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently about the topics.

  第1題和第2題為獨立回答題,要求考生就某一話題闡述自己的觀點。準備時間為15,回答問題時間為45秒。問題會被朗讀出來,同時會出現在螢幕上。比如:

  Narrator Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

  Please begin speaking after the beep.

  

  1. Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

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  Preparation time: 15 seconds

  Response time: 45 seconds

  In questions three and four, you will first read a short text. The text will go away and you will then listen to a talk on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about what you have read and heard. You will need to combine appropriate information from the test and the talk to provide a complete answer to the question. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to accurately convey information about what you read and heard.

  第3題和第4題則以試題中的閱讀和聽力材料為基礎,要求考生回答相關問題。具體步驟是首先讓考生在45秒內閱讀一篇短文,一般只含一個自然段,隨後短文隱去,播放一段與短文相關的對話或課堂演講,其長度大約為1分半鐘。最後,要求考生根據先前閱讀的短文和播放的對話或課堂演講回答相關問題,考生有30秒鐘的準備時間,然後進行60秒鐘的回答,考生可以在聽錄音的過程中做筆記來説明答題。比如:

  Reading Time: 45 seconds

  Announcement from the president The university has decided to increase tuition and fees for all students by approximately 8 percent next semester. For the past 5 years, the tuition and fees have remained the same, but it is necessary to increase them now for several reasons. The university has many more students than we had five years ago, and we must hire additional professors to teach these students. We have also made a new commitment to research and technology, and will be renovating and upgrading our laboratory facilities to better meet our students' needs.

  Narrator

  Now listen to two students as they discuss the announcement.

  Student A Oh great, now we have to come up with more money for next semester.

  Student B Yeah, I know, but I can see why. When I first started here, classes were so much smaller than they are now. With this many students, it's hard to get the personal attention you need……

  Student A Yeah, I guess you're right. You know, in some classes I can't even get a seat. And I couldn't take the math course I wanted to because it was already full when I signed up.

  Student B And the other thing is, well, I am kind of worried about not being able to get a job after I graduate.

  Student A Why I mean you're doing really well in your classes, aren't you

  Student B I'm doing ok, but the facilities here are so limited. There are some great new experiments in microbiology that we can't even do here…… there isn't enough equipment in the laboratories, and the equipment they have is out of date. How am I going to compete for jobs with people who have practical research experience I think the extra tuition will be a good investment.

  Narrator The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

  Please begin speaking after the beep.

  3. The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

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  Preparation time: 30 seconds

  Response time: 60 seconds

  In questions five and six, you will listen to part of a conversation or a lecture. You will then be asked a question about what you heard. Your response will be scored on your ability to speak clearly and coherently and on your ability to accurately convey information about what you heard.

  第五、六題要求考生先聽一段聽力材料,然後回答相關問題。聽力材料通常一段是情景對話,另一段是課堂演講,其長度大約為1分半鐘。考生有20秒鐘的準備時間,之後進行60秒鐘的回答。比如:

  Narrator Please Listen Carefully

  Narrator You may begin to prepare your response after the beep.

  Narrator Now listen to a conversation between two students.

  Student A Hey Lisa, how's it going

  Student B Hi Mark. Uh, I'm OK, I guess, but my schoolwork is really stressing me out.

  Student A Yeah What's wrong

  Student B Well, I've got a paper to write, and two exams to study for. And a bunch of math problems to finish. It's just so much that I can't concentrate on any of it. I start concentrating on studying for one of my exams, and then I'm like, how long's it gonna take to finish that problem set

  Student A Wow sounds like you've got a lot more work than you can handle right now. Look have you talked to some of your professors……I mean, you know , try to explain the problem. Look, you could probably get an extension on your paper, or on the math assignment……

  Student B You think It would give me a little more time to prepare for my exams right now.

  Student A Well, I mean another thing that you might do …… I mean have you tried making yourself a schedule I mean that's what I do when I'm feeling overwhelmed.

  Student B What does that do for you

  Student A Well, I mean it helps you to focus your energies. You know, you make yourself a chart that shows the next few days and the time till your stuff is due and……

  Student B Uh-huh

  Student A I mean think about what you need to do, and when you have to do it by. You know then start filling in your schedule——like, all right 9:00 to 11:30 A.M., study for exam. 12:00 to 3:00 , work on problem set. But I mean don't make the time periods too long. Like, don't put in eight hours of studying——you know, you'll get tired, or start worrying about your other work again. But if you keep to your schedule, you know you'll just have to worry about one thing at a time.

  Student B Yeah, that might work.

  Narrator The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

  Please begin speaking after the beep.

  

  5. The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

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  Preparation time: 20 seconds

  Response time: 60 seconds

  You may take notes while you read and while you listen to the conversations and lectures. You may use your notes to help prepare your response.Listen carefully to the directions for each question. The directions will not be written on the screen.

  For each question you will be given a short time to prepare your response. A clock will show how much preparation time is remaining. When the preparation time is up, you will be told to begin your response. A clock will show how much response time is remaining. A message will appear on the screen when the response time has ended.

  考生可以在聽音過程中記筆記以説明答題。在準備和答題時,螢幕上會顯示倒計時的時鐘。每個回答的得分是04,分數範圍是030.其評分以回答的品質、完整性和準確性為依據。

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