TOEFL托福口語解碼(二)

  對於絕大多數中國考生而言,Presentation Skills的缺乏勢必導致兩大誤區:   第一大誤區是先Beat aroun

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  對於絕大多數中國考生而言,Presentation Skills的缺乏勢必導致兩大誤區:

  第一大誤區是先Beat around the bush,再漸漸切入正題,最後才做出較為精准的總結。這顯然與以漢語為母語的語言交流習慣有關,這在平時的一般交流中或許不那麼致命,甚至有些英語為母語的人平時講話也有這種習慣,但是在一分鐘甚至是45秒的答題時間裡這樣做,就無異于浪費寶貴的答題時間,60秒或45秒的可用來得分的空間縮小到30秒甚至是20,使整個答案的品質大打折扣。

  第二大誤區是毫無計畫地想到哪,說到哪,甚至中途改變主意,否定前面所說內容,做出一個自相矛盾的答案。對於ETS的命題者來說,這兩種誤區都恰恰暴露了中國學生沒有受過系統的Presentation訓練的弱點。要知道,在西方特別是北美,這是一項從中小學就開始注重培養的跨學科的綜合技能。

  那麼怎樣才可以避免以上兩種誤區呢?下面就結合新託福口語的三大題型分別作以解析:

  一。獨立回答題:

  Describe a class you have taken in school and explain why the class was important to you. Include details and examples to support your explanation.

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  Preparation time: 15 seconds

  Response time: 45 seconds

  閱讀題幹應該在5秒內完成,這樣就能保證在答題之前有20秒的時間(包括narrator讀題時間)進行brain-storming.有關在學校上過的一門課的重要性不外乎從以下幾個方面來敘述。

  第一,這門課對於其它後續課的奠基作用。第二,所積累的知識對於今後實際運用的指導作用。第三,對於個人綜合素質及品位的提高。

  為什麼要分成這麼多點論述呢?因為如果只就一個要點深入闡述,很容易走題或者進入一個英語無法表達的死角;同時分成若干點還便於控制時間。比如這道題目的45秒答題時間可以分配給每個分點10,這樣就不會過早或者過晚地完成整個答題的語言結構。

  至於選什麼課來說則遵循什麼容易就講什麼的原則,這是因為託福口語考試和ETS其它考試一樣是不需要任何專業背景的知識的。因此,考生大可以談一些中學裡學過的主課,如數學,語文和外語,而避免談大學裡的專業課,如生物,化學及各類工程類課程等。

  在開始答題的時候,應首先說出一句Topic Sentence 點出這門課的名稱。如果準備不是很充分,為了避免出現答題空白,可以附帶交代這門課的背景資訊,如何時選修的,哪位教授任課,但一定要控制在10秒以內。這種技能叫Skill of Buying Time.隨後,三條理由依次列出,切不可忘記Important是論述的核心,千萬不能無意中轉而強調這門課DifficultInteresting.

  本題參考答案:

  In my previous studies at college, there are quite a few importance courses and one of the most important one of them, if I had to choose one, would be Calculus. Well, as I am an engineering major, in my curriculum there are many courses requiring complicated calculation, equation deduction and math model building. All these need knowledge in calculus as a foundation. Besides, mastery of some quantitative analysis methods will greatly benefit my ability to make a sensible judgment in a complex situation in workplace, no matter what job I'll take up in the future. Finally, without a good sense of advanced mathematics, I will not be able to appreciate the beauty of symmetry in many artistic forms.

  二。讀聽後回答題

  Reading Time: 45 seconds

  Announcement from the president The university has decided to increase tuition and fees for all students by approximately 8 percent next semester. For the past 5 years, the tuition and fees have remained the same, but it is necessary to increase them now for several reasons. The university has many more students than we had five years ago, and we must hire additional professors to teach these students. We have also made a new commitment to research and technology, and will be renovating and upgrading our laboratory facilities to better meet our students' needs.

  Narrator

  Now listen to two students as they discuss the announcement.

  Student A Oh great, now we have to come up with more money for next semester.

  Student B Yeah, I know, but I can see why. When I first started here, classes were so much smaller than they are now. With this many students, it's hard to get the personal attention you need……

  Student A Yeah, I guess you're right. You know, in some classes I can't even get a seat. And I couldn't take the math course I wanted to because it was already full when I signed up.

  Student B And the other thing is, well, I am kind of worried about not being able to get a job after I graduate.

  Student A Why I mean you're doing really well in your classes, aren't you

  Student B I'm doing ok, but the facilities here are so limited. There are some great new experiments in microbiology that we can't even do here…… there isn't enough equipment in the laboratories, and the equipment they have is out of date. How am I going to compete for jobs with people who have practical research experience I think the extra tuition will be a good investment.

  Narrator The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

  Please begin speaking after the beep.

  The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the university president. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

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  Preparation time: 30 seconds

  Response time: 60 seconds

  對於該題,首先要快速讀完文字通知部分,再聽懂AB兩者間的對話方可答題。若在答題前先掃描題幹,可以看出這道題也是一道Issue,只是其觀點並非由答題者自由發揮,而是必須在聽明白其中那名女生的觀點後加以有條理的複述。

  請特別注意,這道題的關鍵是要闡述她的觀點並加以說理,若一些舉例性的細節實在沒有聽清楚可以略過。不過這也意味著歸納總結能力是此題所考查的英語語言運用能力之一。

  本題參考答案:

  The woman is in favor of the university's decision to raise the tuition and fee for all students. One of her reasons is that the university needs to hire more faculty members so that class size would be made smaller. She has noticed that the ever-expanding class size has kept students from getting enough personal attention they need. She also agrees that the lack of faculty members has led to the limited opportunity for students to take the courses they are interested in. Besides, she thinks it is highly necessary for the university to be financed to purchase better research facilities so that students would have the opportunity to conduct all the experiments they need to master for their future career.

  三。先聽後答題

  Narrator Please Listen Carefully

  Narrator You may begin to prepare your response after the beep.

  Narrator Now listen to a conversation between two students.

  Student A Hey Lisa, how's it going

  Student B Hi Mark. Uh, I'm OK, I guess, but my schoolwork is really stressing me out.

  Student A Yeah What's wrong

  Student B Well, I've got a paper to write, and two exams to study for. And a bunch of math problems to finish. It's just so much that I can't concentrate on any of it. I start concentrating on studying for one of my exams, and then I'm like, how long's it gonna take to finish that problem set

  Student A Wow sounds like you've got a lot more work than you can handle right now. Look have you talked to some of your professors……I mean, you know , try to explain the problem. Look, you could probably get an extension on your paper, or on the math assignment……

  Student B You think It would give me a little more time to prepare for my exams right now.

  Student A Well, I mean another thing that you might do …… I mean have you tried making yourself a schedule I mean that's what I do when I'm feeling overwhelmed.

  Student B What does that do for you

  Student A Well, I mean it helps you to focus your energies. You know, you make yourself a chart that shows the next few days and the time till your stuff is due and……

  Student B Uh-huh

  Student A I mean think about what you need to do, and when you have to do it by. You know then start filling in your schedule——like, all right 9:00 to 11:30 A.M., study for exam. 12:00 to 3:00 , work on problem set. But I mean don't make the time periods too long. Like, don't put in eight hours of studying——you know, you'll get tired, or start worrying about your other work again. But if you keep to your schedule, you know you'll just have to worry about one thing at a time.

  Student B Yeah, that might work.

  Narrator The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

  Please begin speaking after the beep.

  

  5. The students discuss two possible solutions to the woman's problem. Describe the problem. Then state which of the two solutions you prefer and explain why.

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  Preparation time: 20 seconds

  Response time: 60 seconds

  本題參考答案:

  I would prefer the second solution suggested by the woman in the dialogue because I think studying with certain measure of pressure is good exercise for one's ability to budget and make full use of time. In this way, making effective schedules is very important for it optimizes the distribution of time resource over different study tasks, keeping the learner from spending time irrationally over long periods of low-efficiency work. Also once a schedule is made, by strictly observing it, a learner can avoid any unconscious behavior of procrastination or slacking off, keeping himself energetic in the alternation of different study tasks. Application for an extension on the paper or assignment might be a good idea, but it does not solve the problem eventually. Sooner or later, all the tasks have to be carried out and sometime it's hard to foresee if another test is one the way…

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