IELTS雅思閱讀難句之定語從句分析

 

  1. Libraries made education possible and education in its turn added to libraries the growth of

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  1. Libraries made education possible and education in its turn added to libraries the growth of knowledge followed a kind of compound-interest law which was greatly enhanced by the invention of printing.

  要點:從內容上分析,which修飾 “the growth of knowledge”

  圖書館的出現使教育的發展成為可能,而教育的發展又反過來使圖書館不斷擴大充實。知識的增長遵循了一種複利法則。由於印刷術的發明,這一知識增長過程得以大大加速。

  2. If they can each be trusted to take such responsibilities and to exercise such initiative as falls within their sphere then administrative overhead will be low.

  如果他們每個人都能予以信任承擔這樣的職責,並在他們所管轄的範圍內發揮主動性,那麼管理費用就會降低。

  3. There are probably no question we can think up that can‘t be answered sooner or later including even that matter of consciousness.

  遲早可能不存在我們想得出但解答不了的問題,甚至包括我們意識的問題。

  4. The curtain was rung down in that phase of history at least by the sudden invention of the hydrogen bomb of the ballistic missile and of rockets that can be aimed to hit the moon.

  至少由於氫彈、彈道導彈和登月火箭出人意料地發明,那個歷史時期宣告結束了。

  5. Studies of the Weddell seal in the laboratory have described the physiological mechanisms that allow the seals to cope with the extreme oxygen deprivation that occurs during its longest dives which can extend 500 meters below the ocean‘s surface and last for over 70 minutes. (三個定語從句)

  關於威德爾海豹特殊的生理機制,在實驗室裡對其進行的研究已作過詳細的描述。該生理機制使海豹可以適應長時間潛水時出現的極度缺氧。海豹長時間潛水時最深可達水面以下500米,時間可持續70多分鐘。

  6. The renaissance of the feminist movement began during the 1950‘s led to the Stasist school which sidestepped the good bad dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar t the lives of women in the East.

  20世紀50年代女權運動的復興產生了斯塔西學派,這一學派回避好與壞的二分法,認為邊境地區婦女和東部婦女過著同樣的生活。

  7. Tom the book‘s protagonist took issue with a man who doted on his household pet yet as a slave merchant thought “nothing of separating the husband from the wife the parents from the children”

  書中的主人公湯姆與一個人發生了爭執。這人雖然愛家中的寵物。但作為一個奴隸販子,卻認為拆散夫妻,讓骨肉分離算不了什麼

  8. We are not conscious of the extent to which work provide the psychological satisfaction that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.

  我們不瞭解工作給人們提供的能把充實的生活與空虛的生活區分開來的心理滿足的程度有多大。

  9. Thus the unity that should characterize the strong system is developed by affording opportunity for diversity which appears to be essential if education is to develop in consideration of the needs of children and youth.

  因此,強大的教育體系所具備的統一性這一特點是通過提供各種機會來達到的。如果發展教育要考慮兒童和青年的需要,多種機會就顯得至關重要。

  10. Automobiles have been designed which operate on liquid hydrogen but these system give rise to seemingly unavoidable problems arising from the handling of a cryogenic liquid.

  雖然已經設計出液氫驅動的汽車,但是這些系統帶來一些由如何處理低溫液體而引發的似乎難以回避的問題。

  11. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  行為主義者的看法是:如果一個兒童在有許多刺激物的環境中長大,而這些刺激物又能培養其作出適當的反應能力,那麼他就會有比較高的智力發展水準。

  12. While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

  雖然有多少個歷史學家,就差不多有多少種歷史學的定義,但現代史學家的實踐大都趨向于這樣一種定義,即歷史學是旨在重現和解釋過去重大事件的學科。

  13. While this boundary does not mark the outer limit of a State‘s territory since in international law the territorial sea forms part of a State’s territory it does represent the demarcation(分界,定界,界限)between that maritime areainternal waters where other States enjoy no general rights and those maritime areas the territorial sea and other zones where other States do enjoy certain general rights.

  儘管這條分界線並不算是國家領土的外緣邊界,但是,因為在國際法中領海也是國家領土的組成部分,它的確是其他國家在其內不享有一般權利的海區(內水域)與其他國家在其中享有某些一般權利的那些海區(領海及其他區域)之間的分界線。

  14. He finds that students who were easy to teach because they succeeded in putting everything they had been taught into practice hesitate when confronted with the vast untouched area of English vocabulary and usage which falls outside the scope of basic textbooks.

  他發現原先比較容易教的學生現在躊躇不前了:原先比較容易教是因為他們能把教給他們的所有東西都付諸實踐;現在躊躇是因為他們面對著大量的在基礎教科書上所沒有接觸過的英語詞彙和慣用法。

  15. The reader who peruses (細讀(正式)) with some attention the following pages will have occasion to see that both operational and mental aspects of physics have their place but that neither should be stressed to the exclusion of the other.

  讀者如果略微仔細地閱讀以下幾頁就會有理由認為,實驗操作和思維在物理學中都具有一定的地位,因而不能強調一方而忽略另一方。

  16. The public is unhappy about the way society is going and its view fueled in part by the agendists and the media seems to be that judicial (司法的)decisions unacceptable to them regardless of the evidence or the law will slow or change social directions.

  公眾對社會發展的前景不樂觀,在議事人士和新聞媒體的某種鼓動下,公眾的觀點似乎是:不管證據或法律,司法判決對他們來說是不可接受的,這些判決將會延緩或者改變社會走向。

  17. But I would like to do the same with the acclaim too by using this moment as a pinnacle from which I might be listened to by the young men and women already dedicated to the same anguish(痛苦) and travail(辛苦), among whom is already that one who will some day stand here where I am standing

  我願意利用這個時刻,利用這個舉世矚目的講壇,向那些聽到我講話並已獻身同一艱苦勞動的男女青年致敬。他們當中肯定有人遲早也會站到我現在所站的地方。

:A~�!;s� �_Oont-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:#333333;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>是個正向詞,緊接著第二句話中lower levels of family stress higher… better health higher… satisfaction等都是正向詞。第三句話中higher satisfaction happier等也都是正向詞。這說明這段話作者的基本態度是正向的,那麼段落主旨就是首句中的benefits,而第二和第三句話就在具體論述有哪些benefits.至於self-esteem marital等生詞不認識都無所謂了,因為本段落中,除了這些正向詞之外,其餘的單詞的存在都是多餘的。30秒足夠你頓悟了吧!

 

其次,關係是更為重要的,因為它的存在更加使得單詞變得多餘。例如:

In business as a whole there are a number of factors encouraging the prospect of greater equality in the workforce. Demographic trends suggest that the number of women going into employment is steadily increasing. In addition a far greater number of women are now passing through higher education making them better qualified to move into management positions.

這段話中,首句a number of factors encouraging…是一個正向詞,說明在分析好的因素。第二句number…increasing和第三句higher education better qualified都是正向詞,說明在具體論述第一句話中的好的因素。但是,二三句之間的一個In addition讓我們知道了這兩句話之間是一個遞進關係,那麼其前後的方向應該是相同的。所以,當我們看完第二句話之後,發現這個遞進關係時,後面的內容根本不需要看了。至於prospectdemographic trends即使都是你的生詞,又怎能妨礙你抓住段落的主旨——a number of factors呢?

常見的表示方向的關係有如下幾大類:

表示前後方向相反:

轉折關係: but/however/yet on the other hand despite

對比關係: more/less…than… unlike

表示前後方向相同:

並列關係: A and B not…nor… first second third

遞進關係: moreover in addition/additionally/besides not only…but also…

那麼請大家來做一個練習:

Managerial and executive progress made by women is confirmed by the annual survey of boards of directors carried out by Korn /Ferry /Carre /Orban International. This year the survey shows a doubling of the number of women serving as non-executive directors compared with the previous year. However progress remains painfully slow and there were still only 18 posts filled by women out of a total of 354 non-executive positions surveyed. Hilary Sears a partner with Korn /Ferry said ‘Women have raised the level of grades we are employed in but we have still not broken through barriers to the top.’

上面一段話,完全可以濃縮成以下內容:

… progress … doubling of the number … However … painfully slow- … raised the level of grades … but … not broken through-

也就是說,從兩次出現“however/but”這種轉折關係詞來看,這一段話一直採用的是一種對比結構,分別論述了婦女找工作的好壞兩方面。怎麼樣,你能否僅僅用30秒鐘完成閱讀?

一旦你能精通無詞閱讀法,那麼在面對每篇將近1000字的雅思閱讀文章時,就一定能產生這樣的鬱悶心情:怎麼文章有這麼多生詞我不認識,卻能夠讀懂大意?這在以前簡直就是mission impossible嘛!但是,不要驚訝,因為你已經頓悟了閱讀!四、無詞閱讀法對於完成題目的直接效果

我在講課的時候,不會像其他沒有頓悟的老師那樣以詞句為單位,查單詞搞翻譯。要知道,如果拿著字典來講閱讀,把文章翻譯一遍之後問同學們:明白這道題為何這樣做了嗎?那麼是不是所有的人都可以講閱讀了!

相反,凡是聽過我的課的同學都知道,我講題目的解法,從來不會翻譯原文和題幹,而是緊緊抓住題幹的重要考點來加以訓練,從而使學生在不翻譯原文的情況下,就能把題目作對。比如判斷題,塵埃中人的做題方法是必須把原文和題幹都翻譯出來,如果一旦翻譯卡殼,就會覺得這道題目是“NOT GIVEN”。但是,我對於每一道判斷題,都是先找出定位詞,再找出考點詞,然後在定位到出題句子之後,考點對應出題點的做題。

例如:

原文:Frogs are losing the ecological battle for survival and biologists are at a loss to explain their demise.

題幹:Biologists are unable to explain why frogs are dying.

對於這道題,塵埃中人一看就傻眼,因為原文中ecological at a loss demise都是生詞。但是,無詞閱讀者是這樣作題的:

首先洞悉本題的考點詞為unable to explain,屬於典型的是非判斷考點詞,對應原文的考點是at a loss to explain.loss是負向詞,而unable也是負向詞,原文與題幹在考點上方向相同。那麼本題就應該是TRUE.至於那些污七八糟的生詞是什麼意思,“Sorry I don‘t know

你敢這樣做判斷題嗎?你有這樣的境界嗎?你頓悟了嗎?

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