Book of Exodus


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The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος, exodos, meaning "going out"; Hebrewשמות‎, Sh'mot, "Names"), is the second book of the Hebrew Bible, and of the five books of the Torah (the Pentateuch).[1]

The book tells how the Israelites leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahweh, the God who has chosen Israel as his people. Led by their prophet Moses they journey through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land") in return for their faithfulness. Israel enters into a covenant with Yahweh who gives them their laws and instructions for the Tabernacle, the means by which he will dwell with them and lead them to the land, and give them peace.

Traditionally ascribed to Moses himself, modern scholarship sees the book as initially a product of the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period (5th century).[2] Carol Meyers in her commentary on Exodus suggests that it is arguably the most important book in the Bible, as it presents the defining features of Israel's identity: memories of a past marked by hardship and escape, a binding covenant with the god who chooses Israel, and the establishment of the life of the community and the guidelines for sustaining it.[


阿勒頗法典約書亞記1 1.JPG

出埃及記的書,或者簡單地說,出埃及記(從希臘 ἔξοδος,exodos,意思是“走出去”; 希伯來語שמותSh'mot,“名稱”),是第二本書希伯來文聖經的五本書,和本的律法(在摩西五經)。[ 1 ]

這本書講述了如何在以色列人通過的實力讓奴隸制在埃及耶和華,上帝誰選擇了以色列作為他的人。通過他們的先知帶領摩西在曠野向他們的旅程西奈山,在那裡耶和華應許他們的土地迦南(在“ 應許之地 “),以換取他們的忠誠。以色列訂立盟約與耶和華誰賦予了它們的法律和指令,由他將居住與他們,領他們到土地,並給他們和平的手段。

傳統上歸因於摩西本人,現代學者認為這本書作為最初的產物巴比倫流亡(公元前6世紀),隨著最後修訂在波斯被擄後時期(公元5世紀)。[ 2 ]卡羅爾·邁耶斯在她的出埃及記解說表明,它可以說是聖經中最重要的一本書,因為它提出了以色列的身份定義功能:標記的困難和逃避,與誰選擇以色列的神有約束力的契約,並建立了生活的過去的回憶社區和維持它的指引。[ 3 ]

Contents according to Judaism's weekly Torah portions[edit]

"Crossing of the Red Sea", Nicholas Poussin
  • Shemot, on Exodus 1–5: Affliction in Egypt, Moses is found and called, Pharaoh
  • Va'eira, on Exodus 6–9: Plagues 1 to 7 of Egypt
  • Bo, on Exodus 10–13: Last plagues of Egypt, first Passover
  • Beshalach, on Exodus 13–17: Parting the Sea, water, manna, Amalek
  • Yitro, on Exodus 18–20: Jethro’s advice, The Ten Commandments
  • Mishpatim, on Exodus 21–24: The Covenant Code
  • Terumah, on Exodus 25–27: God's instructions on the Tabernacle and furnishings
  • Tetzaveh, on Exodus 27–30: God's instructions on the first priests
  • Ki Tissa, on Exodus 30–34: Census, anointing oil, golden calf, stone tablets, Moses radiant
  • Vayakhel, on Exodus 35–38: Israelites collect gifts, make the Tabernacle and furnishings
  • Pekudei, on Exodus 38–40: The Tabernacle is set up and filled


  • Shemot,在出埃及記1-5:痛苦在埃及,摩西是發現和調用,法老
  • Va'eira,在出埃及記6-9:瘟疫1至埃及7
  • ,在出埃及記10-13:埃及最後的瘟疫,第一個逾越節
  • Beshalach,在出埃及記13-17:臨別之海,水,甘露,亞瑪力人
  • Yitro,在出埃及記18-20:葉忒羅的建議,十誡
  • Mishpatim,在出埃及記21-24:該公約守則
  • Terumah,在出埃及記25-27:神在會幕和家具說明書
  • Tetzaveh,在出埃及記27-30:神的第一個牧師的指示
  • 文蒂薩,在出埃及記30-34:政府,膏油,金牛犢,石碑,摩西輻射
  • Vayakhel,在出埃及記35-38:以色列人收集禮物,使帳幕和家具
  • Pekudei,在出埃及記38-40:會幕的設置和填充


There is no agreement among scholars on the structure of Exodus. One strong possibility is that it is a diptych (i.e., divided into two parts), with the division between parts 1 and 2 at the crossing of the Red Sea or at the beginning of the theophany (appearance of God) in chapter 19.[4] On this plan, the first part tells of God's rescue of his people from Egypt and their journey under his care to Sinai (chapters 1–19) and the second tells of the covenant between them (chapters 20–40).[5] Douglas Stuart in his commentary on Exodus puts it this way: "In Egypt, Israel was the servant of Pharaoh; at Sinai they became God's servants."[6]


Egypt's Pharaoh, fearful of the Israelites' numbers, orders that all newborn boys be thrown into the Nile. A Levite woman saves her baby by setting him adrift on the river Nile in anark of bulrushes. Pharaoh's daughter finds the child, names him Moses, and brings him up as her own. But Moses is aware of his origins, and one day, when grown, he kills an Egyptian overseer who is beating a Hebrew slave and has to flee into Midian. There he marries the daughter of Jethro a priest of Midian, and encounters God in a burning bush. Moses asks God for his name: God replies: "I AM that I AM." God tells Moses to return to Egypt and lead the Hebrews into Canaan, the land promised to Abraham.

Moses returns to Egypt and fails to convince the Pharaoh to release the Jews. God smites the Egyptians with terrible plagues (Plagues of Egypt) including a river of blood, a lot of frogs, and the death of first-born sons. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage after a final chase scene ensues when the Pharaoh reneges on his coerced consent (Crossing the Red Sea). The desert proves arduous, and the Israelites complain and long for Egypt, but God provides manna and miraculous water for them. The Israelites arrive at the mountain of God, where Moses' father-in-law Jethro visits Moses; at his suggestion Moses appoints judges over Israel. God asks whether they will agree to be his people. They accept. The people gather at the foot of the mountain, and with thunder and lightning, fire and clouds of smoke, and the sound of trumpets, and the trembling of the mountain, God appears on the peak, and the people see the cloud and hear the voice [or possibly "sound"] of God. Moses and Aaron are told to ascend the mountain. God pronounces the Ten Commandments (the Ethical Decalogue) in the hearing of all Israel. Moses goes up the mountain into the presence of God, who pronounces the Covenant Code (a detailed code of ritual and civil law), and promises Canaan to them if they obey. Moses comes down the mountain and writes down God's words and the people agree to keep them. God calls Moses up the mountain with Aaron and the elders of Israel, and they feast in the presence of God. God calls Moses up the mountain to receive a set of stone tablets containing the law, and he and Joshua go up, leaving Aaron below.

God gives Moses instructions for the construction of the tabernacle so that God could dwell permanently among his chosen people, as well as instructions for the priestly vestments, the altar and its appurtenances, the procedure to be used to ordain the priests, and the daily sacrifices to be offered. Aaron is appointed as the first hereditary high priest. God gives Moses the two tables of stone containing the words of the ten commandments, written with the "finger of God".[7]

While Moses is with God, Aaron makes a golden calf, which the people worship. God informs Moses of their apostasy and threatens to kill them all, but relents when Moses pleads for them. Moses comes down from the mountain, smashes the stone tablets in anger, and commands the Levites to massacre the unfaithful Israelites. God commands Moses to make two new tablets on which He will personally write the words that were on the first tablets. Moses ascends the mountain, God dictates the Ten Commandments (the Ritual Decalogue), and Moses writes them on the tablets.

Moses descends from the mountain, and his face is transformed, so that from that time onwards he has to hide his face with a veil. Moses assembles the Hebrews and repeats to them the commandments he has received from God, which are to keep the Sabbath and to construct the Tabernacle. "And all the construction of the Tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting was finished, and the children of Israel did according to everything that God had commanded Moses", and from that time God dwelt in the Tabernacle and ordered the travels of the Hebrews.


有學者之間對出的結構沒有達成一致。一個很大的可能性是,它是一個雙聯幅(即分為兩部分),與在部分1和2之間的分裂紅海的過境或在開始時神的顯現在第19章(外觀上帝)。[ 4 ]在這個計劃中,第一部分講述自己的百姓從埃及和他們的旅程上帝的拯救下他的關心西奈(1-19章),第二個告訴他們之間的盟約(20-40章)。[ 5 ]道格拉斯·斯圖爾特在他的評論在出埃及記是這樣說的:“在埃及,以色列是法老的奴僕;在西奈他們成為神的僕人” [ 6 ]


埃及的法老,害怕了的以色列人 “號,所有新生男嬰被扔進訂單尼羅河。一個利未人的女子通過設置他漂浮在河上救了她的嬰兒尼羅河蘆葦的方舟。法老的女兒發現了孩子,他的名字摩西,並帶來了他作為她自己的。但摩西知道他的來歷,有一天,長大的時候,他殺害的埃及工頭是誰毆打一個希伯來奴隸,有逃往米甸。在那裡,他娶的女兒米甸的祭司,遇到上帝在燃燒的荊棘。摩西問神,他的名字:上帝回答說:“ 我是,我是。“ 上帝告訴摩西回埃及去,帶領希伯來人進入迦南地答應亞伯拉罕


上帝給摩西的指示為建造會幕,使神能永久地住他選擇的人當中,以及為教士法衣,祭壇和它的附屬物,被用來祝聖祭司 ​​的程序,及每日獻祭說明要提供。阿龍被任命為第一世襲大祭司。上帝給摩西的石頭包含十誡的話,寫的“手指之神”的兩個表。[ 7 ]




Moses with the Ten Commandments, byRembrandt (1659)


Jewish and Christian tradition viewed Moses as the author of Exodus and the entire Pentateuch, but by the end of the 19th century the increasing awareness of the discrepancies, inconsistencies, repetitions and other features of the Pentateuch had led scholars to abandon this idea.[8]According to current thinking, a first draft (the Yahwist) was probably written in the 6th century BCE during the Babylonian exile; this was supplemented and completed as a post-Exilic final edition (the Priestly source) at the very end of the 6th century or during the 5th century,[9] and further adjustments and minor revisions continued down to the end of the 4th century.[10]

Genre and sources[edit]

The Book of Exodus is not historical narrative in any modern sense.[11] Modern history writing requires the critical evaluation of sources, and does not accept God as a cause of events.[12] But in Exodus, everything is presented as the work of God, who appears frequently in person, and the historical setting is only very hazily sketched.[13] The purpose of the book is not to record what really happened, but to reflect the historical experience of the exile community in Babylon and later Jerusalem, facing foreign captivity and the need to come to terms with their understanding of God.[14]

Although mythical elements are not so prominent in Exodus as in Genesis, the echoes of ancient legends are crucial to understanding the book's origins and purpose: for example, the story of the infant Moses's salvation from the Nile has its basis in an earlier legend of king Sargon, while the story of the parting of the Red Sea trades on Mesopotamian creation mythology. Similarly, the Covenant Code (the law code in Exodus 20:22–23:33) has notable similarities in both content and structure with the Laws of Hammurabi. These influences serve to reinforce the conclusion that the Book of Exodus originated in the exiled Jewish community of 6th-century Babylon, but not all the sources are Mesopotamian: the story of Moses's flight to Midian following the murder of the Egyptian overseer may draw on the Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe.[15]





猶太教和基督教的傳統視為摩西出埃及記的作者和整個摩西五,但到了19世紀末的差異,不一致,重複和摩西五經的其他功能的認識不斷提高導致學者放棄這個想法。[ 8 】根據目前的想法,第一稿(中Yahwist)可能是在編寫期間,在公元前6世紀巴比倫流亡,這是補充和完成後放逐最終版(本司鐸源在第6的盡頭)世紀或在公元5世紀,[ 9 ],進一步調整和次要修訂延續到4世紀的結尾。[ 10 ]


出埃及記的書是不是歷史敘事中的任何現代意義。[ 11 ]現代歷史寫作需要的資源進行批判性評價,並且不接受上帝作為事件的原因。[ 12 ]但是,在出埃及記,一切都呈現為工作上帝,誰在人頻繁地出現,而歷史背景只有很困惑草圖。[ 13 ]這本書的目的不是為了記錄到底發生了什麼,而是要反映流亡社會在巴比倫的歷史經驗,後來耶路撒冷,面對國外囚禁和需要來計算與上帝的認識。[ 14 ]

雖然神話元素並不那麼突出在出埃及記在創世紀,古代傳說中的回波是至關重要的理解本書的起源和目的:例如,從尼羅河嬰兒摩西的救贖的故事有它的基礎在國王的早期傳說薩爾貢,而故事的紅海離別交易對美索不達米亞創造神話。同樣,公約守則(出埃及記20:22-23:33的法碼)具有顯著的相似性在內容和結構與漢謨拉比的法律。這些影響有助於加強該出的書起源於6世紀巴比倫流亡的猶太社區的結論,但不是所有的來源是美索不達米亞:摩西的飛行米甸繼埃及監督員的謀殺案的故事可以借鑒埃及Sinuhe的故事[ 15 ]


"Departure of the Israelites", by David Roberts, 1829


Biblical scholars describe the Bible's theologically-motivated history writing as "salvation history", meaning a history of God's saving actions that give identity to Israel – the promise of offspring and land to the ancestors, the exodus from Egypt ( in which God saves Israel from slavery), the wilderness wandering, the revelation at Sinai, and the hope for the future life in the promised land.[12]




聖經學者形容聖經的神學動機史寫作的“ 救贖歷史 “,意為神的,讓身份向以色列節能行動的歷史-的後代和土地的承諾的祖先,出走埃及(其中神拯救以色列奴隸制),曠野流浪,啟示在西奈,以及對未來的希望生活在應許之地[ 12 ]


一個神的顯現是神的一種表現(外觀) -在聖經中,以色列的神的外觀,並伴有風暴-大地顫抖,山脈地震,天上倒雨,雷交加和閃電[ 16 ]在出埃及記的神的顯現開始“第三天”,從在西奈他們的到來,在第19章:耶和華和人民在山上見面,上帝似乎在風暴和交談與摩西給他十誡而人聽。因此,神的顯現是神聖法律的公共經驗。[ 17 ]

出埃及記下半年於這標誌著點,並介紹了通過它,神的神的顯現成為通過一個永久存在於以色列的進程。說了這麼多書(章節25-31,35-40)都花在描述會幕的計劃表明,它起到了感知的重要性,第二聖殿猶太教的祭司作家在文字的新版本的時間:幕就是神是實際存在的,在那裡,透過聖職,以色列可能在直接,文字的共融與他的地方。[ 18 ]


theophany is a manifestation (appearance) of a god – in the Bible, an appearance of the God of Israel, accompanied by storms – the earth trembles, the mountains quake, the heavens pour rain, thunder peals and lightning flashes.[16] The theophany in Exodus begins "the third day" from their arrival at Sinai in chapter 19: Yahweh and the people meet at the mountain, God appears in the storm and converses with Moses, giving him the Ten Commandments while the people listen. The theophany is therefore a public experience of divine law.[17]

The second half of Exodus marks the point at which, and describes the process through which, God's theophany becomes a permanent presence for Israel via the Tabernacle. That so much of the book (chapters 25–31, 35–40) is spent describing the plans of the Tabernacle demonstrates the importance it played in the perception of Second Temple Judaism at the time of the text's redaction by the Priestly writers: the Tabernacle is the place where God is physically present, where, through the priesthood, Israel could be in direct, literal communion with him.[18]


The heart of Exodus is the Sinaitic covenant.[19] A covenant is a legal document binding two parties to take on certain obligations towards each other.[20] There are several covenants in the Bible, and in each case they exhibit at least some of the elements found in real-life treaties of the ancient Middle East: a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, deposition and reading, list of witnesses, blessings and curses, and ratification by animal sacrifice.[21] Biblical covenants, in contrast to Eastern covenants in general, are between a god, Yahweh, and a people, Israel, instead of between a strong ruler and a weaker vassal.[22]

Election of Israel[edit]

Israel is elected for salvation because the "sons of Israel" are "the firstborn son" of the God of Israel, descended through Shem and Abraham to the chosen line of Jacob whose name is changed to Israel. The theme of election by birth will later narrow still further, to the line of David, the descendant of Judah, and further in Christianity to Jesus.[23] The goal of the divine plan as revealed in Exodus is a return to man's state in Eden, so that God can dwell with the Israelites as he had with Adam and Eve through the Ark and Tabernacle, which together form a model of the universe; in later Abrahamic religions this came to be interpreted as Israel being the guardian of God's plan for mankind, to bring "God's creation blessing to mankind" begun in Adam.[24] Later, the "obedient son", Jesus, ultimately brings about a new creation where the "old Adam and old Israel failed".[25]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Dozeman, p. 1.
  2. Jump up^ Johnstone, p. 72.
  3. Jump up^ Meyers, p. xv.
  4. Jump up^ Meyers, p. 17.
  5. Jump up^ Stuart, p. 19.
  6. Jump up^ Stuart, p. 20.
  7. Jump up^ Exodus.31:18;Deuteronomy.9:10
  8. Jump up^ Meyers, p. 16.
  9. Jump up^ Johnstone, pp. 68, 72.
  10. Jump up^ Kugler, Hartin, p. 50.
  11. Jump up^ Fretheim, p. 7.
  12. Jump up to:a b Dozeman, p. 9.
  13. Jump up^ Houston, p. 68.
  14. Jump up^ Fretheim, p. 8.
  15. Jump up^ Kugler,Hartin, p. 74.
  16. Jump up^ Dozeman, p. 4.
  17. Jump up^ Dozeman, p. 427.
  18. Jump up^ Dempster, p. 107.
  19. Jump up^ Wenham, p. 29.
  20. Jump up^ Meyers, p. 148.
  21. Jump up^ Meyers, pp. 149–150.
  22. Jump up^ Meyers, p. 150.
  23. Jump up^ Dempster, pp. 97–98.
  24. Jump up^ Dempster, p. 100.
  25. Jump up^ Dempster, p. 234.


Translations of Exodus[edit]

Commentaries on Exodus[edit]

  • Houston, Walter J (1998). "Exodus". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.
  • Johnstone, William D (2003). "Exodus". In James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.


External links[edit]

Book of Exodus
Preceded by
Hebrew Bible Succeeded by
Old Testament


出埃及記的心臟是西乃半島公約[ 19 ]聖約是一份法律文件,結合雙方承擔對彼此一定的義務。[ 20 ]有幾個契約聖經,並在每一種情況下,他們表現出的至少某些在古代中東的現實生活條約中的元素:一個序言,歷史的序幕,規定,沉積和閱讀,證人,祝福和詛咒名單,並批准由動物獻祭[ 21 ]聖經的契約,而相比之下,東方契約在一般情況下,是一個神,耶和華,一個民族,以色列,而不是一個強大的統治者,一個較弱的附庸之間。[ 22 ]


以色列當選的救贖,因為“兒子以色列”是“長子”以色列的神,通過閃和亞伯拉罕的後裔所選擇的路線的雅各的名字改為以色列。選出生的主題將在後面窄進一步,以線大衛,的後裔猶大,並進一步在基督教耶穌[ 23 ]的神聖計劃所揭示出埃及記的目標是回歸到在人的狀態伊甸園,使神能與以色列人住,因為他曾與亞當和夏娃通過方舟以及神龕,它們共同構成了宇宙的模型,在以後的亞伯拉罕宗教這個後來被解釋為以色列是上帝對計劃的監護人人類,把“上帝的祝福創造人類”開始在亞當。[ 24 ]後來,“聽話的兒子”,耶穌,最終帶來了新的創作,其中“老亞當和以色列老失敗”。[ 25 ]



  1. 跳起來^ Dozeman,第 1。
  2. 跳起來^ 約翰斯通,第 72。
  3. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,第 十五。
  4. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,第 17。
  5. 跳起來^ 斯圖爾特,第 19。
  6. 跳起來^ 斯圖爾特,第 20。
  7. 跳起來Exodus.31:18; Deuteronomy.9:10
  8. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,第 16。
  9. 跳起來^ 約翰斯通,第68,72。
  10. 跳起來^ 庫格勒,哈廷,第 50。
  11. 跳起來^ 弗雷特海姆,第 7。
  12. 跳起來:一個 b Dozeman頁。9。
  13. 跳起來^ 休斯敦,第 68。
  14. 跳起來^ 弗雷特海姆,第 8。
  15. 跳起來^ 庫格勒,哈廷,第 74。
  16. 跳起來^ Dozeman,第 4。
  17. 跳起來^ Dozeman,第 427。
  18. 跳起來^ 登普斯特,第 107。
  19. 跳起來^ 威納姆頁。29。
  20. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,第 148。
  21. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,頁149-150。
  22. 跳起來^邁 爾斯,第 150。
  23. 跳起來^ 登普斯特,頁97-98。
  24. 跳起來^ 登普斯特,第 100。
  25. 跳起來^ 登普斯特,第 234。






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