託福閱讀中的“同義改寫”問題

新託福有許多自己的特點,新託福閱讀的一個重要特點之一就是“同義改寫(主要針對動詞和形容詞)”。“同義改寫”對託福閱讀考試有哪些影響值得我們注意呢?

  首先,“同義改寫”會影響到“定位”的準確與速度。新託福閱讀十類題型中的事實資訊題、列舉排除題、推理題以及填表題都涉及到了原文定位的問題。定位的準確與速度也是影響閱讀分數的一個重要因素。定位的時候,首先確定大區間,也就是題幹中給我們具體的指示“According to paragraph X" "In paragraph X" 定位具體的段落,或是根據“閱讀文章行文順序與行文順序基本一致”的特點進行大區間的定位;下一步就是確定題幹中的關鍵字。但是,回原文中定位的時候,有時並不一定可以找到一模一樣的“關鍵字”,因為託福閱讀在定位時往往會設置一個同義改寫。比如例一這道事實資訊題,我們首先定位到了第三段,然後尋找題幹中的關鍵字是“Whig Partys view of the role of government(Whig 政黨關於政府職能的觀點)”,但是定位時,你會發現原文中所對應的出處是"The governments responsibility was to.....(政府的職責是...)" 也就是說你不能期待定位時一定會從原文中找到一模一樣的“關鍵字”,這個定位過程中很有可能出現同義改寫的狀況。

  其次,定位完成後,選項部分可能又會進行一個同義改寫。比如例一原文中的“to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability”所對應的正確選項換了個說法,被改寫成了“To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit”。所以在選擇選項的時候,你也不能期待選項一定是原文中一模一樣的表達。

  同義改寫的設置不僅僅是在託福閱讀中,聽力中也涉及到了同樣的問題,也就是說正確的選項並不一定是你所到的原詞原句,基本上都會設置同義改寫來確定你是否真的聽懂了。例二的同義改寫現象請同學們自己做出分析。

  例一:According to paragraph 3which of the following describes the Whig Partys view of the role of government

  A.To regulate the continuing conflict

  B.To restrict the changes brought about by the market

  C.To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit

  D.To reduce the emphasis on economic development

  Paragraph 3 Whigson the other handwere more comfortable with the market.For themcommerce and economic development agents of civilization.Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other.Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity.The governments responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability

  例二:According to paragraph 3 the loss of natural vegetation has which of the following consequences for soil

  A.Increased stony content

  B.Reduced water absorption

  C.Increased numbers of spaces in the soil

  D.Reduced water runoff

  Paragraph 3 Even in the areas that retain a soil cover the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil's ability to absorb substantial quantities of water. The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced consequently runoff is increased resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established

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