Book of Numbers民數記

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The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, ArithmoiHebrewבמדבר‎, Bəmidbar, "In the desert [of]") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.[1]

Numbers begins at Mount Sinai, where the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary.[2] The task before them is to take possession of the Promised Land. The people are numbered and preparations are made for resuming their march. The Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" (complain or kvetch) at the hardships along the way, and about the authority of Moses and Aaron. For these acts, God destroys approximately 15,000 of them through various means. They arrive at the borders of Canaan and send spies into the land, but upon hearing the negative emphasis of the spies' report concerning the conditions in Canaan the Israelites refuse to take possession of it, and God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task. The book ends with the new generation of Israelites in the Plain of Moab ready for the crossing of the Jordan River.[3]

Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers. As such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in Genesis and played out in Exodus and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great (i.e. numerous) nation, that they will have a special relationship with Yahweh their god, and that they shall take possession of the land of Canaan. Against this, Numbers also demonstrates the importance of holiness, faithfulness and trust: despite God's presence and his priests, Israel lacks faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation. The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is probably due to a Priestly redaction (i.e., editing) of a Yahwistic original text some time in the early Persian period (5th century BCE).[4]


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Most commentators structure Numbers in three sections based on locale (Mount SinaiKadesh-Barnea and the plains of Moab), linked by two travel sections.[5] This view has the advantage of anchoring Numbers to the Pentateuch as a whole,[5] but an alternative is to see it as structured around the two generations of those condemned to die in the wilderness and the new generation who will enter Canaan, making a theological distinction between the disobedience of the first generation and the obedience of the second.[6]


priest, Levite, and furnishings of the Tabernacle

God orders Moses, in the wilderness of Sinai, to number those able to bear arms—of all the men "from twenty years old and upward," and to appoint princes over each tribe. 603,550 Israelites are found to be fit for military service. In chapter 26, a generation later and after approximately forty years of wandering the desert, the Lord orders a second census. 601,730 men are counted.

The tribe of Levi is exempted from military service and therefore not included in the census totals. Moses consecrates the Levites for the service of the Tabernacle in the place of the first-born sons, who hitherto had performed that service. The Levites are divided into three families, the Gershonites, the Kohathites, and the Merarites, each under a chief, and all headed by one priest, Eleazar, son of Aaron. Preparations are then made for resuming the march to the Promised Land. Various ordinances and laws are decreed.

The first journey of the Israelites after the Tabernacle had been constructed is commenced. The people murmur against God and are punished by fire; Moses complains of the stubbornness of the Israelites and is ordered to choose seventy elders to assist him in the government of the people. Miriam and Aaron insult Moses at Hazeroth, which angers God; Miriam is punished with leprosy and is shut out of camp for seven days, at the end of which the Israelites proceed to the desert of ParanTwelve spies are sent out into Canaan and come back to report to Moses. Joshua and Caleb, two of the spies, tell that the land is abundant and is "flowing with milk and honey"; the other spies say that it is inhabited by giants, and the Israelites refuse to enter the land. Yahweh decrees that the Israelites will be punished for their loss of faith by having to wander in the wilderness for 40 years.

With the two hundred fifty censers left after God's destruction of Korah's band for questioning the authority of Moses and Aaron, Moses is ordered by God to make plates to cover the altar. The children of Israel murmur against Moses and Aaron on account of the destruction of Korah's men and are stricken with the plague, with 14,700 perishing.

Aaron and his family are declared by God to be responsible for any iniquity committed in connection with the sanctuary. The Levites are again appointed to help in the keeping of the Tabernacle. The Levites are ordered to surrender to the priests a part of the tithes taken to them.

Miriam dies at Kadesh Barnea and the Israelites set out for Moab, on Canaan's eastern border. The Israelites blame Moses for the lack of water. Moses is ordered by God to speak to a rock but disobeys, and is punished by the announcement that he shall not enter Canaan. The king of Edom refuses permission to the Israelites to pass through his land and they go round it. Aaron dies on Mount Hor. The Israelites are bitten by Fiery flying serpents for speaking against God and Moses. A brazen serpent is made to ward off these serpents.

The Israelites arrive on the plains of Moab. A new census gives the total number of males from twenty years and upward as 601,730, and the number of the Levites from a month old and upward as 23,000. The land shall be divided by lot. The daughters of Zelophehad, their father having no sons, are to share in the allotment. Moses is ordered to appoint Joshuaas his successor. Prescriptions for the observance of the feasts, and the offerings for different occasions are enumerated.

Moses orders the Israelites to massacre the people of Midian. The Reubenites and the Gadites request Moses to assign them the land east of the Jordan. Moses grants their request after they promise to help in the conquest of the land west of the Jordan. The land east of the Jordan is divided among the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

Moses recalls the stations at which the Israelites halted during their forty years' wanderings and instructs the Israelites to exterminate the Canaanites and destroy their idols. The boundaries of the land are spelled out; the land is to be divided under the supervision of Eleazar, Joshua, and twelve princes, one of each tribe.


A Plague Inflicted on Israel While Eating the Quail (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

The key event in the formation of the Old Testament was the fall of the kingdom of Judah to the Babylonian empire in 586 BCE.[7]The Babylonians destroyed the city and the Temple of Solomon, executed the king's sons in front of him before putting out his eyes, and took him and many others into exile.[8] These events represented a major religious crisis: why had their god allowed this to happen? What had happened to the promise that the descendants of David would reign forever?[8] The answers were recorded in the works of the prophets EzekielJeremiah and Second Isaiah, and in the Deuteronomistic history, the collection of historical works from Joshua to Kings: God had not abandoned Israel; Israel had abandoned God, and the Babylonian exile was God's punishment for Israel's lack of faith.[9]

The Babylonian exile lasted approximately 48 years, from 586 to 538 BCE, and ended with the conquest of Babylon in that year by the Persians. The new Persian ruler decided to allow the exiles to return home. According to the book of Ezra-Nehemiah they did so under the joint leadership of a descendant of the last king and the last High Priest, rebuilding the Temple and reconstituting Judah (now called Yehud) as a holy community ruled by priests. It was in this period that the Pentateuch (or Torah, to give the Hebrew name) was composed, by detaching the book of Deuteronomy from the Deuteronomistic history and adding it to the books of GenesisExodusLeviticus and Numbers.[10]


Balaam and the Angel (illustration from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle)

David A. Clines, in his influential The Themes of the Pentateuch (1978), identified the overarching theme of the five books as the partial fulfilment of a promise made by God to the patriarchs, to AbrahamIsaac and Jacob. The promise has three elements: posterity (i.e., descendants – Abraham is told that his descendants will be as innumerable as the stars), divine-human relationship (Israel is to be God's chosen people), and land (the land of Canaan, cursed by Noah immediately after the Deluge).[11]

The theme of the divine-human relationship is expressed, or managed, through a series of covenants (meaning treaties, legally binding agreements) stretching from Genesis to Deuteronomy and beyond. The first is the covenant between God and Noah immediately after the Deluge in which God agrees never again to destroy the Earth. The next is between God and Abraham, and the third between God and all Israel at Mount Sinai. In this third covenant, unlike the first two, God hands down an elaborate set of laws (scattered through Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers), which the Israelites are to observe; they are also to remain faithful to Yahweh, the god of Israel, meaning, among other things, that they must put their trust in his help.[12]

The theme of descendants marks the first event in Numbers, the census of Israel's fighting men: the huge number which results (over 600,000) demonstrates the fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham of innumerable descendants, as well as serving as God's guarantee of victory in Canaan.[13] As chapters 1–10 progress the theme of God's presence with Israel comes to the fore: these chapters describe how Israel is to be organised around the Sanctuary, God's dwelling-place in their midst, under the charge of the Levites and priests, in preparation for the conquest of the land.[14]

The Israelites then set out to conquer the land, but almost immediately they refuse to enter it and Yahweh condemns the whole generation who left Egypt to die in the wilderness. The message is clear: failure was not due to any fault in the preparation, because Yahweh had foreseen everything, but to Israel's sin of unfaithfulness. In the final section the Israelites of the new generation follow Yahweh's instructions as given through Moses and are successful in all they attempt.[14] The last five chapters are exclusively concerned with land: instructions for the extermination of the Canaanites, the demarcation of the boundaries of the land, how the land is to be divided, holy cities for the Levites and "cities of refuge", the problem of pollution of the land by blood, and regulations for inheritance when a male heir is lacking.[15]


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摩西將他們所行經的乾燥不毛之地稱為「大而可怕的曠野」,至今情況仍然一樣,當地的居民仍要不停遷徙以求找尋草場和水源。(《申命記》第1章第19節) 此外,一切有關以色列人紮營、前行的隊式,以及吹號招聚安營的方式等詳細訓示,均顯示這些記載『在曠野裏』寫成的。(《民數記》第1章第1節)






  • 第一部分由起頭至10章第10節為止,記述以色列人仍在西奈山安營時所發生的事情。
  • 第二部分伸展到第21章為止,記載在其後的三十八年零一兩個月期間,他們在曠野流浪直至抵達摩押平原的時期內所發生的事情。
  • 第三部分至第36章結束,它記錄以色列人在摩押平原上準備進入應許之地時所發生的事。


(覆蓋《民數記》第1章第1節-《民數記》第10章第10節)以色列人在西奈的山區生活了約有一年。他們在該處被重整為一個緊密的組織。於是耶和華吩咐他們統計20歲以外的男丁數目。各支派,從瑪拿西的32200名壯丁至猶大支派的74600名男丁,共計有603,550名夠資格在以色列軍隊中服役的壯丁,此外還有一大群利未人、婦女和孩童——總共大約有三百萬過外的百姓。 會幕和利未支派被安置在營的中央。其餘的以色列人則每三個支派為一組,各按指定的位置安營。在起行時,每個支派均須依照訓示順序起行。耶和華向他們頒下訓示,聖經説:「以色列人就這樣行,……都是照耶和華所吩咐摩西的。」(《民數記》第2章第34節)他們服從耶和華及尊重上帝的顯形代表摩西。

利未人被區別出來特別為耶和華服務,以作為以色列人首生人畜的贖價。他們按照利未三個兒子——革順、哥轄及米拉利——的家室分成三組。他們根據這種區分被派在不同的地點安營和擔當不同的工作任務。 30歲以上的人擔任扛抬搬運帳幕的吃力工作。年滿25歲的人則擔任各種較輕省的工作。(在大衛的日子將年限減至20歲。)[6]



耶和華以帶領以色列人出埃及的同樣方式指引這個國家前行,在日間以雲彩遮蓋帳幕,夜間則有火柱照耀。雲彩前行,整個國家便前行。雲彩在帳幕上停住,整個國家便停下來安營,有時逗留幾天,有時則達一個月或更長的時候。經文告訴我們:「他們遵耶和華的吩咐安營,也遵耶和華的吩咐起行。他們守耶和華所吩咐的,都是憑耶和華吩咐摩西的。」(《民數記》第9章第23節) 在他們即將離開西奈的時候,他們接獲吩咐要製銀號,用指定的吹號方式召集各人及在曠野的旅途上指示他們如何列隊安營。


(覆蓋《民數記》第10章第11節-《民數記》第21章第35節)第二年2月20日,耶和華終於把雲彩從帳幕上收去,藉此顯示以色列人要離開西奈的地區了。 他們抬著耶和華的約櫃,朝著北面直線距離約240公里的加低斯·巴尼亞進發。他們在日間前行時,耶和華以雲彩覆蓋他們。每當約櫃起行,摩西便祈求耶和華興起使他的仇敵四散;約櫃停住,他就祈求耶和華「回到以色列的千萬人中」。(《民數記》第10章第36節

可是,營中發生了難題。在朝北向加低斯·巴尼亞進發的途中,百姓至少曾三次發怨言。耶和華降下烈火燒滅了他們當中的一些人以平息第一場怨言。接著他們當中『混雜的百姓』煽動以色列人哭號埋怨,説他們不像在埃及時一樣有黃瓜西瓜韭菜可吃,而是只有嗎哪可吃。(《民數記》第11章第4節) 摩西大感苦惱,以致他求耶和華將他殺了,因為他不願再作百姓的養育之父了。耶和華體恤摩西,於是把降與他的靈分賜給70個長老以協助摩西在營中作預言者。後來,營中有大量的肉吃。像前一次一樣,有風從耶和華那裏颳起,把鵪鶉由海面吹來。百姓貪得無饜地大量捕取,並自私地把鵪鶉屯積起來。耶和華因百姓的自私貪婪向他們大發烈怒,在他們當中殺了許多人。[8]


以色列人來到加低斯,在應許之地的邊境上安營。耶和華於是吩咐摩西打發探子前往窺探應許之地。 他們從南地上去,向北「直到哈馬口」,40天內走了數百哩的路程。(《民數記》第13章第21節) 他們從迦南地帶回來一些豐盛的果實,但其中十個探子缺乏信心,聲稱攻打這些堅固的城邑和強壯的民族是愚不可及的事。迦勒試圖以有利的報告使會衆平靜下來,但卻勞而無功。悖逆的探子使以色列人大起恐慌,聲稱該處是「吞吃居民之地」,並説:「我們在那裏所看見的人民都身量高大。」營中的百姓怨聲載道之際,約書亞和迦勒力言:「有耶和華與我們同在,不要怕他們!」[9]可是,民衆卻呼喊要用石頭打死他們。



叛逆的事卻繼續發生。可拉、大坍、亞比蘭和以色列會衆中的250個首領聚集起來攻擊摩西和亞倫。摩西讓耶和華親自解決這個爭論,他對叛黨説:『你們要拿香爐來,把火盛在爐中,把香放在其上,讓耶和華作出揀選。』(《民數記》第16章第6節至第7節)耶和華的榮光就向全會衆顯現。他迅速執行判決,使地開了口,把可拉、大坍和亞比蘭的家眷都吞下去,然後他發出火來燒滅了獻香的250個人,可拉也包括在內。 第二天,百姓又向摩西和亞倫發怨言,埋怨耶和華的作為。因此他以瘟疫擊打他們,共殺了14700個發怨言的人。

有鑑於此,耶和華吩咐以色列人從每個支派取一根杖,亞倫也要奉利未支派的名交出一根寫上自己名字的杖。翌日,惟獨亞倫的杖開了花,結出熟杏,由此證明耶和華挑選他作祭司。這根杖放在約櫃裏,「給這些背叛之子留作記號」。[10] 在進一步提供有關繳納什一捐及把紅母牛灰混和水中作潔淨之用等訓示之後,聖經的記載轉回加低斯之上。米利暗在那裏去世,並葬在當地。

會衆在應許之地的邊界上再次因沒有水喝而向摩西爭鬧。耶和華視之為百姓向他爭鬧,便在榮光中向摩西顯現,吩咐他拿杖使磐石發出水來。這次摩西和亞倫有在衆人眼前沒有尊耶和華為聖。摩西在盛怒之下用杖擊打磐石兩下。百姓和牲畜都喝了從磐石流出來的水,但摩西和亞倫卻沒有將功勞歸給耶和華。雖然曠野的艱辛旅程已行將結束,但由於他們兩人行事不智,招惹耶和華不悅,因此上帝説他們必不得進入應許之地。 不久亞倫死在何珥山上,他的兒子以利亞撒繼任大祭司。

以色列人轉向東面,希望穿過以東的國境,但卻遭嚴詞拒絶。他們只好繞道不入以東國境。就在這個時候,百姓再度因埋怨上帝和摩西而惹起難題。他們厭惡嗎哪,且覺得口渴難耐。耶和華因他們的悖逆使毒蛇進入他們當中,咬死了許多人。最後,摩西向耶和華求情,上帝於是吩咐他造一條銅製的火蛇掛在柱上。凡被咬的,只要注視這蛇,就必得活。 以色列人向北進發,但相繼受到好戰的阿摩利王西宏和巴珊王噩所阻撓。以色列人擊敗了他們,並且佔領了他們在大裂谷以東的國土。



巴蘭既咒詛以色列人不遂而觸怒了巴勒,為了討王的歡心,他於是獻計要摩押人以他們的婦女引誘以色列人參與巴力的淫蕩崇拜。(《民數記》第31章第15節至第16節)結果,就在應許之地的邊緣上,以色列人犯了不道德和崇拜假神的大罪。 耶和華大發烈怒,用瘟疫攻擊百姓,摩西則吩咐人要重重懲罰犯過者。大祭司的兒子非尼哈看見一個族長的兒子帶著一個米甸女人進入營中自己的帳幕裏,他便跟隨他們,用槍刺透婦人的生殖部位而把他們殺了。至此瘟疫遂告止息,但被瘟疫所殺的人已達24000。

此後,耶和華吩咐摩西和以利亞撒數點民衆,就像39年前在西奈山所為一般。人口的總數並沒有增加。相反,登記的男丁少了1820人。除了約書亞和迦勒之外,在西奈山登記在軍中服役的人沒有一個存留下來;正如耶和華所預言,這些人全都死在曠野中。 然後耶和華頒布一些有關把土地分給百姓作産業的訓示。他重申摩西由於在米利巴水泉上沒有在會衆眼前尊耶和華為聖,所以不得進入應許之地。[11]約書亞奉派作摩西的繼承人。

其後耶和華通過摩西提醒以色列人有關獻祭、節期、許願償還等律法規條的重要性。此外,他要摩西與米甸人算賬,因為他們誘使以色列人與巴力·毗珥連合。米甸的所有男丁,包括巴蘭在內,均全部戰死沙場,惟獨沒有出嫁的處女才得倖免。共有32000名女子與一大批戰利品,包括808,000頭牲口,被以色列人擄獲。 沒有一個以色列兵士在戰爭中陣亡。 呂便和迦得的子孫善於牧放牲畜,他們請求得約旦河以東之地為業。在他們答允協助攻取應許之地後,他們得償所願,故此這兩個支派與瑪拿西的半個支派一同獲賜這塊豐饒肥美的高原為業。

回顧40年的旅程所經之處以後,經文再次強調以色列必須服從耶和華。上帝把地賜給他們,但他們必須作他的行刑代表,將那地崇拜鬼魔的邪惡居民趕出,並且把一切與偶像崇拜有關的事物徹底鏟除。記載詳細列明上帝所賜之地的疆界。他們要按家室拈鬮分地。利未人並沒有按支派承受産業,反之他們獲賜48座城及城四圍的郊野,其中有6座作逃城供庇護誤殺人者之用。 産業必須留在各支派中,不可因婚姻的緣故從一個支派轉移到另一個支派。若無子繼承産業,女兒便可承受産業——西羅非哈的女兒便是一例——但她們必須嫁給本支派內的人。[12]民數記最後記載耶和華通過摩西賜下的這些命令典章,當時以色列的衆子孫正作妥準備進入應許之地。

Weekly Torah portions[edit]

  • Bemidbar, on Numbers 1–4: First census, priestly duties
  • Naso, on Numbers 4–7: Priestly duties, the camp, unfaithfulness and the Nazirite, Tabernacle consecration
  • Behaalotecha, on Numbers 8–12: Levites, journing by cloud and fire, complaints, questioning of Moses
  • Shlach, on Numbers 13–15: Mixed report of the scouts and Israel's response, libations, bread, idol worship, fringes
  • Korach, on Numbers 16–18: Korah’s rebellion, plague, Aaron’s staff buds, duties of the Levites
  • Chukat, on Numbers 19–21: Red heifer, water from a rock, Miriam’s and Aaron’s deaths, victories, serpents
  • Balak, on Numbers 22–25: Balaam's donkey and blessing
  • Pinechas, on Numbers 25–29: Phinehas, second census, inheritance, Moses' successor, offerings and holidays
  • Matot, on Numbers 30–32: Vows, Midian, dividing booty, land for Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh
  • Masei, on Numbers 33–36: Stations of the Israelites’ journeys, instructions for conquest, cities for Levites

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Ashley, p.1
  2. Jump up^ Olson, p.9
  3. Jump up^ Stubbs, pp.19–20
  4. Jump up^ McDermott, p.21
  5. Jump up to:a b Ashley, pp.2–3
  6. Jump up^ Knierim, p.381
  7. Jump up^ Dawes, p.13
  8. Jump up to:a b Dawes, p.14
  9. Jump up^ Dawes, pp.14–16
  10. Jump up^ Dawes, p.16
  11. Jump up^ Clines, p.29
  12. Jump up^ Bandstra, pp.28–29
  13. Jump up^ Olson, p.14
  14. Jump up to:a b Ska, p.38
  15. Jump up^ Clines, p.62


Commentaries on Numbers[edit]

  • Fretheim, Terence E (1998). "Numbers". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.


  • Van Seters, John (1998). "The Pentateuch". In Steven L. McKenzie, Matt Patrick Graham. The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.

External links[edit]


Jewish translations:

Christian translations:

Book of Numbers
Preceded by
Hebrew Bible Succeeded by
Old Testament




  • 保羅表明在曠野中有水從磐石流出來一事的意義,説:「[他們]也都喝了一樣的靈水。所喝的,是出於隨著他們的靈磐石;那磐石就是基督。」(《哥林多前書》第10章第4節;《民數記》第20章第7節至第11節)基督自己很適當地説:「人若喝我所賜的水就永遠不渴,我所賜的水要在他裏頭成為泉源,直湧到永生。」——《約伯記》第4章第14節
  • 耶穌也直接提及民數記所載的一件事影射上帝通過基督而作的奇妙安排。他説:「摩西在曠野怎樣舉蛇,人子也必照樣被舉起來,叫一切信他的都得永生。」——《約伯記》第3章第14節至第15節;《民數記》第21章第8節至第9節



  • 希伯來書的作者就這件事提出有力的警告説:「弟兄們,你們要謹慎,免得你們中間或有人存著不信的惡心,把永生上帝離棄了。總要……天天彼此相勸。」古代的以色列人由於忤逆和不信,結果死在曠野裏。「所以,我們務必竭力進入那安息,免得有人學那不信從的樣子跌倒了。」[13]
  • 為了警告人提防一些毀謗聖物的不敬虔之人,猶大提及巴蘭貪圖利益和可拉反叛地詆毀耶和華的僕人摩西。[14]
  • 彼得也提到巴蘭,稱之為「那貪愛不義之工價的先知」。
  • 在賜給約翰的啟示中,得了榮耀的耶穌説:「巴蘭曾教導巴勒將絆腳石放在以色列人面前,叫他們吃祭偶像之物,行姦淫的事。」今日的基督徒會衆無疑應當受到警告提防這些不聖潔的人。[15]


哥林多會衆發生了不道德的事時,保羅寫信給他們,論及「貪戀惡事」而特別提及民數記的記載。他勸勉説:「我們也不要行姦淫,像他們有人行的,一天就倒斃了二萬三千人。」[16] 以色列人曾埋怨服從上帝的命令帶來個人的艱辛,並對耶和華所供應的嗎哪表示不滿,這件事又如何?關於這點,保羅説:「也不要試探主,像他們有人試探的,就被蛇所滅。」[17] 保羅繼續説:「你們也不要發怨言,像他們有發怨言的,就被滅命的所滅。」以色列人埋怨耶和華,批評他的代表和他所作的供應,這樣行所導致的後果對他們是多麼痛苦的經驗! 「他們遭遇這些事,都要作為鑑戒。」對今日的人來説,這是個清楚的警務。[18]




  1. ^ 這卷書的拉丁名是Numeri,希臘名是Arithmoi
  2. ^ 「在荒漠」的希伯來語Bemidbar就成了這部分的名稱
  3. ^ 參看《民數記》第1章第1節;《申命記》第1章第3節
  4. ^ 參看《民數記》第13章第28節
  5. ^ 參看《民數記》第3章第4節;《民數記》第12章第1節至第15節;《民數記》第20章第7節至第13節
  6. ^ 參看《歷代志上》第23章第24節至第32節;《以斯拉記》第3章第8節
  7. ^ 參看《民數記》第7章第1節,《民數記》第7章第10節;《出埃及記》第40章第17節
  8. ^ 參看《出埃及記》第16章第2節至第3節,《出埃及記》第16章第13節
  9. ^ 參看《民數記》第13章第32節;《民數記》第14章第9節
  10. ^ 參看《民數記》第17章第10節;《希伯來書》第9章第4節
  11. ^ 參看《民數記》第20章第13節;《民數記》第27章第14節,《聖經新世界譯本》腳注
  12. ^ 參看《民數記》第27章第1節至第11節;《民數記》第36章第1節至第11節
  13. ^ 參看《希伯來書》第3章第7節-《希伯來書》第4章第11節;《民數記》第13章第25節-《民數記》第14章第38節
  14. ^ 參看《猶大書》第11節;《民數記》第22章第7節至第8節,《民數記》第7章第22節;《民數記》第26章第9節至第10節
  15. ^ 參看《彼得後書》第2章第12節至第16節;《啟示錄》第2章第14節
  16. ^ 參看《哥林多前書》第10章第6節,《哥林多前書》第10章第8節;《民數記》第25章第1節至第9節;《民數記》第31章第16節
  17. ^ 參看《哥林多前書》第10章第9節;《民數記》第21章第5節至第6節
  18. ^ 參看《哥林多前書》第10章第10節至第11節;《民數記》第14章第2節,《民數記》第14章第36節至第37節;《民數記》第16章第1節至第3節,《民數記》第16章第41節;《民數記》第17章第5節,《民數記》第17章第10節




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