託福閱讀考試要學會猜測生詞詞義

摘要:託福閱讀考試要學會猜測生詞詞義,託福閱讀更順利我們在閱讀時會不可避免地遇到些生詞,頻繁地查字典實在不是一個上策(要知道新託福考試是不容許查字典的),因為,那樣即耽誤了閱讀時間又中斷了閱讀思路,使大腦處於“停機”狀態,閱讀理解的品質當然就會很差。那又如何是好呢?

其實,閱讀的目的在於獲得整個句子、整個段落、乃至整個篇章的思想,而不是各個孤立的詞彙的意義。新託福口語考試中的閱讀,考查的是考生對段落中心思想整體把握的能力,只要能獲得閱讀材料的主要資訊,並隨後能用自己的話加以陳述,一兩個生詞不會有什麼大礙。

  不可否認,巨大的詞彙量是高品質的閱讀和高品質的口語的基礎。但當遇到生詞時總查字典又不現實(特別是在考試時),那麼我們不妨利用上下文來推測,看看我們有多大的猜詞本領。強大的猜詞本領無疑會有助於閱讀速度和閱讀能力的提高。

  1.根據定義、解釋猜測詞義

  We all know that ants are ferocious eaters. They differ widely in their diets and may be carnivorous herbivorous or omnivorous meaning that some eat meat others eat only plants while others eat a combination of both.由後面的解釋我們可以得知:“carnivorous”的意思是“食肉的”;“herbivorous”的意思是“食草的”;“omnivorous”的意思是“雜食的”。

  2.根據複述(同位語、定語等)

  Today Id like to talk about some of the changes land can undergo specifically desertification process through which land becomes part of a desert.

  後面的同位語告訴我們“desertification”的意思是“沙漠化。”

  3.根據舉例

  After breakfast many people go to church but the children will be playing with their new toys and the mother will probably be preparing the Christmas dinner. This includes poultry for the main course (e.g. chicken turkey duck goose) salads breads and vegetable and features a variety of desserts for example pies puddings and ice cream.

  “chicken turkey duck goose”同屬“poultry:家禽”。

  4.根據對比關係

  Jane was talking with others while Eliza remained reticent all the time.

  “while”是一個顯示對比的信號詞,“reticent”與“talking”相對應,“reticent”:沉默的。

  5.根據比喻關係

  The hot-air balloon took off. It was as buoyant in the air as a cork (軟木塞) in water.

  把熱氣球比作水中的軟木塞,說明“buoyant ”的意義:“漂浮;浮力。”

  6.根據同義詞的替代

  Venus rotates retrograde or backwards”, spinning in the opposite direction of its orbit around the Sun.

  由“backwards”這一替代詞得知“retrograde”的意思:“向後的。”

  7.有時也可根據一般性常識/生活經驗猜測詞義

  The door was so low that I hit my head on the lintel.

  門太低,我的頭撞在“lintel門楣”上了。

  8.也可根據詞形構造猜測詞義

  More recently scientists have documented an alarmingly high occurrence of frogs with malformations.

  form是詞根, formation“形式”,mal-:構詞首碼,可表示“壞、惡、不良”,還可表示“不、不正常、不當、非法。”malformation的意思就應該是“畸形。”更多的例子如:malnutrition營養不良;malconduct(公職人員的)胡作非為;maladjustive引起失調的;不利調節的。

  當然,要想做到這一點,就必須掌握英語常用的首碼、尾碼及詞根的意義。

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